Fa59 Assignments Synonyms

1. Aksai Chin – Aksai Chin is one of the two main disputed border areas between China and India, the other being a part of Arunachal Pradesh. In 1962, China and India fought a war over Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh, but in 1993 and 1996. The etymology of Aksai Chin is uncertain regarding the word chin, as a word of Turkic origin, aksai literally means white brook but whether the word chin refers to Chinese or pass is disputed. The Chinese name of the region, 阿克赛钦, is composed of Chinese characters chosen for their phonetic values, Aksai Chin is one of the two large disputed border areas between India and China. India claims Aksai Chin as the easternmost part of the Jammu, China claims that Aksai Chin is part of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. The line that separates Indian-administered areas of Jammu and Kashmir from Aksai Chin is known as the Line of Actual Control and is concurrent with the Chinese Aksai Chin claim line. Aksai Chin covers an area of about 37,244 square kilometres. The area is largely a vast high-altitude desert with a low point at about 4,300 m above sea level. In the southwest, mountains up to 7,000 m extending southeast from the Depsang Plains form the de facto border between Aksai Chin and Indian-controlled Kashmir. In the north, the Kunlun Range separates Aksai Chin from the Tarim Basin, according to a recent detailed Chinese map, no roads cross the Kunlun Range within Hotan Prefecture, and only one track does so, over the Hindutash Pass. Aksai Chin area has number of basins with many salt or soda lakes. The major salt lakes are Surigh yil ganning kol, Tso tang, Aksai Chin Lake, Hongshan hu, the western part of Aksai Chin region is drained by the Tarim River. The eastern part of the region contains several small endorheic basins, the largest of them is that of the Aksai Chin Lake, which is fed by the river of the same name. The region as a whole receives little precipitation as the Himalayas, besides officials from the Chinese military, the inhabitants of Aksai Chin are, for the most part, members of nomadic groups such as the Bakarwal who regularly pass through the area. The best known settlements are the town of Tianshuihai and the village of Tielongtan, one of the earliest treaties regarding the boundaries in the western sector was signed in 1842. The Sikh Confederacy of the Punjab region in India had annexed Ladakh into the state of Jammu in 1834, in 1841, they invaded Tibet with an army. Chinese forces defeated the Sikh army and in turn entered Ladakh, after being checked by the Sikh forces, the Chinese and the Sikhs signed a treaty in September 1842, which stipulated no transgressions or interference in the other countrys frontiers. However, both sides were sufficiently satisfied that a traditional border was recognized and defined by natural elements. The boundaries beyond the extremities of Aksai Chin near Pangong Lake and near the Karakoram Pass were well-defined, william Johnson, a civil servant with the Survey of India proposed the Johnson Line in 1865, which put Aksai Chin in Kashmir

2. Summit – A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a summit is a maximum in elevation. The topographic terms acme, apex, peak, and zenith are synonymous, the UIAA definition is that a summit is independent if it has a prominence of 30 metres or more, it is a mountain if it has a prominence of at least 300 metres. This can be summarised as follows, A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top, Summit may also refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route. In many parts of the western United States, the term refers to the highest point along a road, highway. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit while the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit, geoid Hill List of highest mountains Maxima and minima Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder

3. Tibet Autonomous Region – The Tibet Autonomous Region or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province-level autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. Within China, Tibet is identified as an autonomous region, the current borders of Tibet were generally established in the eighteenth century and include about half of ethno-cultural Tibet. In 1950, the Peoples Liberation Army defeated the Tibetan army in a battle fought near the city of Chamdo, in 1951, the Tibetan representatives signed a 17-point agreement with the Chinese Central Peoples Government affirming Chinas sovereignty over Tibet and the incorporation of Tibet. The agreement was ratified in Lhasa a few months later, the Dalai Lama fled to India in 1959 and renounced the 17-point agreement. Tibet Autonomous Region was established in 1965, thus making Tibet an administrative division that is equivalent in status to a Chinese province. The Tibet Autonomous Region is located on the Tibetan Plateau, the highest region on earth, in northern Tibet elevations reach an average of over 4,572 metres. Mount Everest is located on Tibets border with Nepal, Chinas provincial-level areas of Xinjiang, Qinghai and Sichuan lie to the north, northeast, and east, respectively, of the Tibet AR. There is also a border with Yunnan province to the southeast. The PRC has border disputes with the Republic of India over the McMahon Line of Arunachal Pradesh, the disputed territory of Aksai Chin is to the west, and its boundary with that region is not defined. The other countries to the south are Myanmar, Bhutan and Nepal. Physically, the Tibet AR may be divided into two parts, the region in the west and north-west, and the river region. On the south the Tibet AR is bounded by the Himalayas, the system at no point narrows to a single range, generally there are three or four across its breadth. Other lakes include Dagze Co, Namtso, and Pagsum Co, the lake region is a wind-swept Alpine grassland. This region is called the Chang Tang or Northern Plateau by the people of Tibet and it is some 1,100 km broad, and covers an area about equal to that of France. Due to its distance from the ocean it is extremely arid. The mountain ranges are spread out, rounded, disconnected, separated by flat valleys. The Tibet AR is dotted over with large and small lakes, generally salt or alkaline, due to the presence of discontinuous permafrost over the Chang Tang, the soil is boggy and covered with tussocks of grass, thus resembling the Siberian tundra. Salt and fresh-water lakes are intermingled, the lakes are generally without outlet, or have only a small effluent

4. Geographic coordinate system – A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation, to specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection. The invention of a coordinate system is generally credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene. Ptolemy credited him with the adoption of longitude and latitude. Ptolemys 2nd-century Geography used the prime meridian but measured latitude from the equator instead. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes recovery of Ptolemys text a little before 1300, in 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while France and Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911, the latitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the equator, the north pole is 90° N, the south pole is 90° S. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the equator, the plane of all geographic coordinate systems. The equator divides the globe into Northern and Southern Hemispheres, the longitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle east or west of a reference meridian to another meridian that passes through that point. All meridians are halves of great ellipses, which converge at the north and south poles, the prime meridian determines the proper Eastern and Western Hemispheres, although maps often divide these hemispheres further west in order to keep the Old World on a single side. The antipodal meridian of Greenwich is both 180°W and 180°E, the combination of these two components specifies the position of any location on the surface of Earth, without consideration of altitude or depth. The grid formed by lines of latitude and longitude is known as a graticule, the origin/zero point of this system is located in the Gulf of Guinea about 625 km south of Tema, Ghana. To completely specify a location of a feature on, in, or above Earth. Earth is not a sphere, but a shape approximating a biaxial ellipsoid. It is nearly spherical, but has an equatorial bulge making the radius at the equator about 0. 3% larger than the radius measured through the poles, the shorter axis approximately coincides with the axis of rotation

5. Cecil Rawling – He published two books detailing his experiences and served in the British Army on the North-West Frontier of India and in France during the First World War. It was during this service that he was killed in action aged 47 during the Battle of Passchendaele. Born in February 1870 to Samuel Bartlett and Ada Bithe Rawling, Cecil Rawling was raised in Somerset, after leaving school, Rawling served in the local militia as an officer, subsequently accepting a commission into the Somerset Light Infantry in 1891. His unit was dispatched to India in 1897 and served on the North-West Frontier during the Tirah Campaign, during this period, Rawling took numerous hunting trips up into the Himalaya mountains. In 1902, he unofficially entered Tibet with a friend, Lieutenant A. J. G, hargreaves, and together they began an exploration of the region which would last another four years. During the diplomatic expedition and the campaign which followed it, Rawling surveyed over 40,000 square miles of Tibet in addition to his military duties. His team even explored the foothills of Everest and included parts of the mountain in his survey and it is said that had his seniors on the expedition not forbidden it, he would have become the first white man to attempt to climb the mountain from the north face. He was also the first person to identify the source of the river Brahmaputra after a lengthy. He wrote a book about his experiences in Tibet named The Great Plateau which was published in 1905, in 1909 he was attached to an expedition to Dutch New Guinea, now Papua in Indonesia. During the sea voyage, the leader was incapacitated and Rawling was called on to replace him. In New Guinea he explored many of the islands untouched jungles and had encounters with native tribes including the first Western encounter with the Tapiro pygmies. In much of the terrain his expedition covered, they were the first Europeans ever to reach these regions, the maps and reports from this expedition were the first from this area of New Guinea. His second book, The Land of the New Guinea Pygmies was released on his return to England in 1913. At the outbreak of the First World War, he was attached to the raised and recruited forces of Kitcheners Army. He was thus not deployed to France until Spring 1915, when he was placed in command of the 6th battalion of the Somerset Light Infantry as a lieutenant colonel. His unit fought in the stages of the Second Battle of Ypres. With the massive buildup of troops in the approach to the battle of the Somme he took command of the 62nd Brigade in the 21st Infantry Division, and retained this post throughout the battle. During the battles along the Somme he was engaged at Fricourt, Mametz Wood and Gueudecourt, in the battles of Albert, all of his units objectives were eventually captured but only at the cost of high casualties

6. Chinese language – Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Chinese is spoken by the Han majority and many ethnic groups in China. Nearly 1.2 billion people speak some form of Chinese as their first language, the varieties of Chinese are usually described by native speakers as dialects of a single Chinese language, but linguists note that they are as diverse as a language family. The internal diversity of Chinese has been likened to that of the Romance languages, There are between 7 and 13 main regional groups of Chinese, of which the most spoken by far is Mandarin, followed by Wu, Min, and Yue. Most of these groups are mutually unintelligible, although some, like Xiang and certain Southwest Mandarin dialects, may share common terms, all varieties of Chinese are tonal and analytic. Standard Chinese is a form of spoken Chinese based on the Beijing dialect of Mandarin. It is the language of China and Taiwan, as well as one of four official languages of Singapore. It is one of the six languages of the United Nations. The written form of the language, based on the logograms known as Chinese characters, is shared by literate speakers of otherwise unintelligible dialects. Of the other varieties of Chinese, Cantonese is the spoken language and official in Hong Kong and Macau. It is also influential in Guangdong province and much of Guangxi, dialects of Southern Min, part of the Min group, are widely spoken in southern Fujian, with notable variants also spoken in neighboring Taiwan and in Southeast Asia. Hakka also has a diaspora in Taiwan and southeast Asia. Shanghainese and other Wu varieties are prominent in the lower Yangtze region of eastern China, Chinese can be traced back to a hypothetical Sino-Tibetan proto-language. The first written records appeared over 3,000 years ago during the Shang dynasty, as the language evolved over this period, the various local varieties became mutually unintelligible. In reaction, central governments have sought to promulgate a unified standard. Difficulties have included the great diversity of the languages, the lack of inflection in many of them, in addition, many of the smaller languages are spoken in mountainous areas that are difficult to reach, and are often also sensitive border zones. Without a secure reconstruction of proto-Sino-Tibetan, the structure of the family remains unclear. A top-level branching into Chinese and Tibeto-Burman languages is often assumed, the earliest examples of Chinese are divinatory inscriptions on oracle bones from around 1250 BCE in the late Shang dynasty

7. Standard Chinese – Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese is a language with topic-prominent organization. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants, Standard Chinese is an analytic language, though with many compound words. There exist two standardised forms of the language, namely Putonghua in Mainland China and Guoyu in Taiwan, aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters, while Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters. There are many characters that are identical between the two systems, in English, the governments of China and Hong Kong use Putonghua, Putonghua Chinese, Mandarin Chinese, and Mandarin, while those of Taiwan, Singapore, and Malaysia, use Mandarin. The name Putonghua also has a long, albeit unofficial, history and it was used as early as 1906 in writings by Zhu Wenxiong to differentiate a modern, standard Chinese from classical Chinese and other varieties of Chinese. For some linguists of the early 20th century, the Putonghua, or common tongue/speech, was different from the Guoyu. The former was a prestige variety, while the latter was the legal standard. Based on common understandings of the time, the two were, in fact, different, Guoyu was understood as formal vernacular Chinese, which is close to classical Chinese. By contrast, Putonghua was called the speech of the modern man. The use of the term Putonghua by left-leaning intellectuals such as Qu Qiubai, prior to this, the government used both terms interchangeably. In Taiwan, Guoyu continues to be the term for Standard Chinese. The term Putonghua, on the contrary, implies nothing more than the notion of a lingua franca, Huayu, or language of the Chinese nation, originally simply meant Chinese language, and was used in overseas communities to contrast Chinese with foreign languages. Over time, the desire to standardise the variety of Chinese spoken in these communities led to the adoption of the name Huayu to refer to Mandarin and it also incorporates the notion that Mandarin is usually not the national or common language of the areas in which overseas Chinese live. The term Mandarin is a translation of Guānhuà, which referred to the lingua franca of the late Chinese empire, in English, Mandarin may refer to the standard language, the dialect group as a whole, or to historic forms such as the late Imperial lingua franca. The name Modern Standard Mandarin is sometimes used by linguists who wish to distinguish the current state of the language from other northern. Chinese has long had considerable variation, hence prestige dialects have always existed. Confucius, for example, used yǎyán rather than colloquial regional dialects, rime books, which were written since the Northern and Southern dynasties, may also have reflected one or more systems of standard pronunciation during those times

8. Pinyin – Pinyin, or Hànyǔ Pīnyīn, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China, Malaysia, Singapore, and Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Chinese, which is written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones, Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang and it was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times. The International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as a standard in 1982. The system was adopted as the standard in Taiwan in 2009. The word Hànyǔ means the language of the Han people. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing and this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years later, another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, and the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing Dynasty scholar-official, the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the effect of the kana syllabaries. This galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script, while Song did not himself actually create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, and it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. This Sin Wenz or New Writing was much more sophisticated than earlier alphabets. In 1940, several members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Societys new journal. Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Yat-sens son, Sun Fo, Cai Yuanpei, the countrys most prestigious educator, Tao Xingzhi, an educational reformer. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, biographies, some contemporary Chinese literature, and a spectrum of textbooks

9. Standard Tibetan – Standard Tibetan is the most widely spoken form of the Tibetic languages. It is based on the speech of Lhasa, an Ü-Tsang dialect, for this reason, Standard Tibetan is often called Lhasa Tibetan. Tibetan is a language of the Tibet Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. The written language is based on Classical Tibetan and is highly conservative, like many languages, Standard Tibetan has a variety of language registers, Phal-skad, the vernacular speech. Zhe-sa, the spoken style, particularly prominent in Lhasa. Chos-skad, the style in which the scriptures and other classical works are written. In scientific and astrological works, the numerals, as in Vedic Sanskrit, are expressed by symbolical words, Tibetan is written with an Indic script, with a historically conservative orthography that reflects Old Tibetan phonology and helps unify the Tibetan-language area. Wylie transliteration is the most common system of romanization used by Western scholars in rendering written Tibetan using the Latin alphabet, Tibetan pinyin, however, is the official romanization system employed by the government of the Peoples Republic of China. Certain names may also retain irregular transcriptions, such as Chomolungma for Mount Everest, the following summarizes the sound system of the dialect of Tibetan spoken in Lhasa, the most influential variety of the spoken language. These sounds normally occur in closed syllables, because Tibetan does not allow geminated consonants, the result is that the first is pronounced as an open syllable but retains the vowel typical of a closed syllable. For instance, zhabs is pronounced and pad is pronounced, but the compound word and this process can result in minimal pairs involving sounds that are otherwise allophones. Sources vary on whether the phone and the phone are distinct or basically identical, phonemic vowel length exists in Lhasa Tibet but in a restricted set of circumstances. Assimilation of Classical Tibetans suffixes, normally ‘i, at the end of a word produces a long vowel in Lhasa Tibetan, in normal spoken pronunciation, a lengthening of the vowel is also frequently substituted for the sounds and when they occur at the end of a syllable. The vowels, and each have nasalized forms, and, respectively, in some unusual cases, the vowels, and may also be nasalised. The Lhasa dialect is described as having two tones, high and low. However, in words, each tone can occur with two distinct contours. It is normally safe to only between the two tones because there are very few minimal pairs that differ only because of contour. The difference occurs only in words ending in the sounds or, for instance

10. Kongka Pass – The Kongka Pass or Kongka La, elevation 5,171 m, is a high mountain pass of the Chang-Chemno Range on the Line of Actual Control. China considers the Kongka Pass as its boundary with India, whereas India regards Lanak Pass further east as the boundary, in October 1959, Indian troops crossed the Kongka Pass in an attempt to establish posts on the Lanak Pass. This resulted in a clash with the Chinese soldiers posted on Kongka Pass, of the 70 Indian soldiers, nine were killed and ten were taken prisoner. Chinese soldiers reportedly suffered one death, Indian media described the event a brutal massacre of an Indian policy party. The incident preceded the Sino-Indian War in 1962

11. Presidencies and provinces of British India – Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent. Collectively, they were called British India, in one form or other they existed between 1612 and 1947, conventionally divided into three historical periods. During 1612–1757, the East India Company set up factories in several locations, mostly in coastal India and its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Holland and France. By the mid-18th century, three Presidency towns, Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta had grown in size, during the period of Company rule in India, 1757–1858, the Company gradually acquired sovereignty over large parts of India, now called Presidencies. However, it increasingly came under British government oversight, in effect sharing sovereignty with the Crown. At the same time it gradually lost its mercantile privileges, following the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Companys remaining powers were transferred to the Crown. In the new British Raj, sovereignty extended to a few new regions, increasingly, however, unwieldy presidencies were broken up into Provinces. In 1608, the English East India Company established a settlement at Surat, and it was followed in 1611 by a permanent factory at Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast, and in 1612 the company joined other already established European trading companies in Bengal. Company rule in Bengal, however, ended with the Government of India Act 1858 following the events of the Bengal Rebellion of 1857 and these rulers were allowed a measure of internal autonomy in exchange for British suzerainty. British India constituted a significant portion of India both in area and population, in 1910, for example, it covered approximately 54% of the area, in addition, there were Portuguese and French exclaves in India. Independence from British rule was achieved in 1947 with the formation of two nations, the Dominions of India and Pakistan, the latter also including East Bengal, present-day Bangladesh. The term British India also applied to Burma for a time period, starting in 1824, a small part of Burma. This arrangement lasted until 1937, when Burma commenced being administered as a separate British colony, British India did not apply to other countries in the region, such as Sri Lanka, which was a British Crown colony, or the Maldive Islands, which were a British protectorate. It also included the Colony of Aden in the Arabian Peninsula, the original seat of government was at Allahabad, then at Agra from 1834 to 1868. Bombay Presidency, East India Companys headquarters moved from Surat to Bombay in 1687, the East India Company, which was incorporated on 31 December 1600, established trade relations with Indian rulers in Masulipatam on the east coast in 1611 and Surat on the west coast in 1612. The company rented a trading outpost in Madras in 1639, meanwhile, in eastern India, after obtaining permission from the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to trade with Bengal, the Company established its first factory at Hoogly in 1640. Almost a half-century later, after Emperor Aurengzeb forced the Company out of Hooghly, by the mid-18th century the three principal trading settlements, now called the Madras Presidency, the Bombay Presidency, and the Bengal Presidency were each administered by a Governor. After Robert Clives victory in the Battle of Plassey in 1757, in 1772, the Company also obtained the Nizāmat of Bengal and thereby full sovereignty of the expanded Bengal Presidency

12. Ladakh – It is one of the most sparsely populated regions in Jammu and Kashmir and its culture and history are closely related to that of Tibet. Ladakh is renowned for its remote mountain beauty and culture, Aksai Chin is one of the disputed border areas between China and India. It is administered by China as part of Hotan County but is claimed by India as a part of the Ladakh region of the state of Jammu. In 1962, China and India fought a war over Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh. Since 1974, the Government of India has successfully encouraged tourism in Ladakh, since Ladakh is a part of strategically important Jammu and Kashmir, the Indian military maintains a strong presence in the region. The largest town in Ladakh is Leh, followed by Kargil, almost half of Ladakhis are Shia Muslims and the rest are mostly Tibetan Buddhists. In terms of pronunciation, the use of Ladakh, the Persian transliteration of the Tibetan La-dvags, is warranted by the pronunciation of the word in several Tibetan districts. Ladakh in the Farsi transliteration of the Tibetan La-dvags, which means on the borderland of extreme Pakistan, Ladakh has been described as The Mysterious Land of the Mystic Lamas, The Broken Moonland, or The Last Shangri-La for its unique landscape and exquisite culture. One sees no horizon here but only mountain peaks soaring up to 5 to 6 km, in the prehistoric period Ladakh formed a Great Lake. Even at present the region has some of the largest and most beautiful lakes, Pangong and it is a repository of myriad cultural and religious influences from Tibet, Indian subcontinent and Central Asia. Rock carvings found in parts of Ladakh indicate that the area has been inhabited from Neolithic times. Around the 1st century, Ladakh was a part of the Kushana empire, Buddhism spread into western Ladakh from Kashmir in the 2nd century when much of eastern Ladakh and western Tibet was still practising the Bon religion. The 7th century Buddhist traveler Xuanzang describes the region in his accounts, in the 8th century, Ladakh was involved in the clash between Tibetan expansion pressing from the East and Chinese influence exerted from Central Asia through the passes. Suzerainty over Ladakh frequently changed hands between China and Tibet, in 842 Nyima-Gon, a Tibetan royal prince annexed Ladakh for himself after the break-up of the Tibetan empire, and founded a separate Ladakhi dynasty. During this period, Ladakh acquired a predominantly Tibetan population, the dynasty spearheaded the second spreading of Buddhism, importing religious ideas from north-west India, particularly from Kashmir. The first spreading of Buddhism was the one in Tibet proper, according to Rolf Alfred Stein, author of Tibetan Civilization, the area of Zhangzhung was not historically a part of Tibet and was a distinctly foreign territory to the Tibetans. Then further west, The Tibetans encountered a distinctly foreign nation—Shangshung, mt. Kailāśa and Lake Manasarovar formed part of this country, whose language has come down to us through early documents. Though still unidentified, it seems to be Indo-European, geographically the country was certainly open to India, both through Nepal and by way of Kashmir and Ladakh

13. Tibet – Tibet is a region on the Tibetan Plateau in Asia, spanning about 2.4 million km2 and nearly a quarter of Chinas territory. Tibet is the highest region on Earth, with an elevation of 4,900 metres. The highest elevation in Tibet is Mount Everest, Earths highest mountain, the Tibetan Empire emerged in the 7th century, but with the fall of the empire the region soon divided into a variety of territories. The current borders of Tibet were generally established in the 18th century, following the Xinhai Revolution against the Qing dynasty in 1912, Qing soldiers were disarmed and escorted out of Tibet Area. The region subsequently declared its independence in 1913 without recognition by the subsequent Chinese Republican government, later, Lhasa took control of the western part of Xikang, China. There are tensions regarding Tibets political status and dissident groups that are active in exile and it is also said that Tibetan activists in Tibet have been arrested or tortured. The economy of Tibet is dominated by agriculture, though tourism has become a growing industry in recent decades. The dominant religion in Tibet is Tibetan Buddhism, in there is Bön, which is similar to Tibetan Buddhism. Tibetan Buddhism is an influence on the art, music. Tibetan architecture reflects Chinese and Indian influences, staple foods in Tibet are roasted barley, yak meat, and butter tea. The Tibetan name for their land, Bod བོད་, means Tibet or Tibetan Plateau, although it meant the central region around Lhasa. The Standard Tibetan pronunciation of Bod, is transcribed Bhö in Tournadre Phonetic Transcription, Bö in the THL Simplified Phonetic Transcription and Poi in Tibetan pinyin. Tibetan people, language, and culture, regardless of where they are from, are referred to as Zang although the geographical term Xīzàng is often limited to the Tibet Autonomous Region. The term Xīzàng was coined during the Qing dynasty in the reign of the Jiaqing Emperor through the addition of a prefix meaning west to Zang, the best-known medieval Chinese name for Tibet is Tubo. This name first appears in Chinese characters as 土番 in the 7th century, in the Middle Chinese spoken during that period, as reconstructed by William H. Baxter, 土番 was pronounced thux-phjon and 吐蕃 was pronounced thux-pjon. Other pre-modern Chinese names for Tibet include Wusiguo, Wusizang, Tubote, the English word Tibet or Thibet dates back to the 18th century. Historical linguists generally agree that Tibet names in European languages are loanwords from Semitic Ṭībat orTūbātt, itself deriving from Turkic Töbäd, literally, according to Matthew Kapstein, From the perspective of historical linguistics, Tibetan most closely resembles Burmese among the major languages of Asia. More controversial is the theory that the Tibeto-Burman family is part of a larger language family, called Sino-Tibetan

14. Larry Wortzel – Dr. Larry M. Wortzel is an eight-term Commissioner of the U. S. -China Economic and Security Review Commission of the United States Congress. A 32-year military veteran, he was a U. S. Army colonel, director of the Strategic Studies Institute of the United States Army War College and he was a military attaché at the U. S. Embassy in Beijing, and witnessed the Tiananmen Massacre in 1989. He is considered one of the United States top experts on China, Larry Wortzel received a B. A. degree from Columbus College in Columbus, Georgia, and earned his Masters and Ph. D. degrees in political science from the University of Hawaii. Wortzel spent three years in the U. S. Marine Corps before attending college, and then enlisted in the U. S. Army in 1970 and he was assigned to the Army Security Agency in Thailand to monitor Chinese military communications in nearby Vietnam and Laos. By 1973 he graduated from the Infantry Officer Candidate School and he also graduated from the United States Army War College. He shifted to military intelligence after serving as an officer for four years. From 1978 to 1982, he served at the Intelligence Center Pacific of the U. S and he then enrolled in advanced Chinese language studies at the National University of Singapore. Next he served as a special agent at the Office of the Secretary of Defense for four years. From 1988 to 1990, Wortzel was an assistant military attaché at the American Embassy in Beijing, and witnessed and reported on the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, in 1995, he returned to the embassy as the Army Attaché. In 1997, Wortzel became the director of the Strategic Studies Institute of the U. S. Army War College, in 1999, he retired from the Army as a colonel after 32 years of military service. From 1999 to 2006, Wortzel served as Asian Studies Center director, since 2001, he has served for eight two-year terms as a Commissioner of the U. S. -China Economic and Security Review Commission of the United States Congress. His term expired on December 31,2016, Wortzel is married and lives in Williamsburg, Virginia. Class in China, stratification in a classless society, the Chinese Armed Forces in the 21st Century. Strategic Studies Institute, U. S. Army War College, dictionary of Contemporary Chinese Military History. The Lessons of History, The Chinese Peoples Liberation Army at 75, Strategic Studies Institute, U. S. Army War College. The Dragon Extends its Reach, Chinese Military Power Goes Global, potomac Books, Inc.15 June 2013

15. Questia Online Library – Questia is an online commercial digital library of books and articles that has an academic orientation, with a particular emphasis on books and journal articles in the humanities and social sciences. The great majority of items are under copyright, for which Questia has paid a fee to the copyright owners, all the text in all the Questia books and articles is available to subscribers, the site also includes integrated research tools. Questia, based in Chicago, Illinois, was founded in 1998 and purchased by Gale, part of Cengage Learning, the books have been selected by academic librarians as credible, authoritative works in their respective areas. The librarians have also compiled about 7000 reference bibliographies on frequently researched topics, the library is strongest in books and journal articles in the social sciences and humanities, with many older historical texts. The Questia service also features tools to create citations and bibliographies. A limitation to the Questia library is that new additions are available in a version only. Unlike Questias earlier publications, these prevent users from copying text directly from the website, a charge is made for printing a range of pages. Questia launched their Q&A blog on September 21,2011, Q&A is divided into Education news, Student resources and Subjects categories. Subjects is further broken down so readers can find content based on their academic needs. Questia released an app in 2011, which was extended to the iPad the following year. Then in January 2013 Questia launched tutorials, including videos and quizzes, Questia was criticized in 2005 by librarian Steven J. Bell for referring to itself as an academic library, when it concentrates on the liberal arts and treats users as customers rather than students. Moreover, Bell argues, Questia does not employ academic librarians or faculty, although some of its employees have advanced library degrees, they do not work or collaborate with faculty to develop collections that serve distinctive student populations. List of digital library projects Official Website

16. International Standard Serial Number – An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character. The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, however, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial

17. International Standard Book Number – The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, however, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces. Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is also done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker

18. JSTOR – JSTOR is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of journals, it now also includes books and primary sources. It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries have access to JSTOR, most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone. William G. Bowen, president of Princeton University from 1972 to 1988, JSTOR originally was conceived as a solution to one of the problems faced by libraries, especially research and university libraries, due to the increasing number of academic journals in existence. Most libraries found it prohibitively expensive in terms of cost and space to maintain a collection of journals. By digitizing many journal titles, JSTOR allowed libraries to outsource the storage of journals with the confidence that they would remain available long-term, online access and full-text search ability improved access dramatically. Bowen initially considered using CD-ROMs for distribution, JSTOR was initiated in 1995 at seven different library sites, and originally encompassed ten economics and history journals. JSTOR access improved based on feedback from its sites. Special software was put in place to make pictures and graphs clear, with the success of this limited project, Bowen and Kevin Guthrie, then-president of JSTOR, wanted to expand the number of participating journals. They met with representatives of the Royal Society of London and an agreement was made to digitize the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society dating from its beginning in 1665, the work of adding these volumes to JSTOR was completed by December 2000. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded JSTOR initially, until January 2009 JSTOR operated as an independent, self-sustaining nonprofit organization with offices in New York City and in Ann Arbor, Michigan. JSTOR content is provided by more than 900 publishers, the database contains more than 1,900 journal titles, in more than 50 disciplines. Each object is identified by an integer value, starting at 1. In addition to the site, the JSTOR labs group operates an open service that allows access to the contents of the archives for the purposes of corpus analysis at its Data for Research service. This site offers a facility with graphical indication of the article coverage. Users may create focused sets of articles and then request a dataset containing word and n-gram frequencies and they are notified when the dataset is ready and may download it in either XML or CSV formats. The service does not offer full-text, although academics may request that from JSTOR, JSTOR Plant Science is available in addition to the main site. The materials on JSTOR Plant Science are contributed through the Global Plants Initiative and are only to JSTOR

19. Strategic Studies Institute – The Strategic Studies Institute is the U. S. Armys institute for strategic and national security research and analysis. It is part of the U. S. Army War College and it is located at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania. SSI is composed of civilian research professors, uniformed officers. SSI is divided into three components, the Department of Research, the US Army War College Fellowship Program and the US Army War College Press. In addition to its resources, SSI has a web of partnerships with strategic analysts around the world, including the foremost thinkers in the field of security. SSI studies use history and current political, economic, and military factors to develop strategic recommendations and these studies often influence the formulation of U. S. military strategy, national security policy, and even the strategies of allies and friends. SSI analysts have contributed to major U. S. national security strategy documents, the U. S. Army War College also hosts a major annual strategy conference at Carlisle Barracks. Strategic thinkers such as Michael Howard, Colin Gray, Daniel Byman, Thomas Marks, Dennis Ippolito, Amit Gupta, polyakov, Williamson Murray, John White, John Deutch and Eliot Cohen have written SSI studies. The current director of SSI is Douglas Lovelace, Colonel Mark Hinds is Deputy Director. Steven Metz is Director of Research, james Pierce is Director of Publications. Antulio Echevarria is the Editor of PARAMETERS, Colonel Michael Weaver is Director of Academic Engagement and Lieutenant Colonel John Colwell Deputy Director. SSIs analytical staff includes Don Snider, Andrew Terrill, Trey Braun, David Lai, John Deni, Max Manwaring, Leonard Wong, jeff McCausland and Robert Bunker hold visiting positions as Minerva Chairs. In addition to their work for SSI, the Institutes staff analysts are well known experts in their fields with multiple publications, congressional testimony, and many media interviews

20. United States Army War College

1. Adly Mansour – Adly Mahmoud Mansour is an Egyptian judge and statesman who is the President of the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt. He also served as the acting President of Egypt from 4 July 2013 to 8 June 2014 following the 2013 Egyptian coup détat by the military which deposed President Mohamed Morsi. Morsi refused to acknowledge his removal as valid and continued to maintain that only he could be considered the legitimate President of Egypt, Mansour was sworn into office in front of the Supreme Constitutional Court on 4 July 2013. He later attended Frances École nationale dadministration and graduated in 1977, Mansour spent six years in Saudi Arabia in the 1980s, working as an adviser to the Saudi Ministry of Commerce. He is married and has a son and two daughters, Mansour was appointed to the Supreme Constitutional Court in 1992. Mansour did not have the opportunity to swear the oath as president of the SCC until 4 July 2013, on 30 June 2016, Abdel Wahab Abdel Razek replaced him in the post. On 3 July 2013, Mansour was named interim President of Egypt following the ousting of Mohamed Morsi in the 2013 Egyptian coup détat subsequent to the 2012–13 Egyptian protests and his appointment was announced on television by the minister of defense Abdel Fattah el-Sisi. Earlier, there was confusion as to who exactly was appointed interim president, with some sources suggesting it was the former President of the Supreme Constitutional Court. Mansour was sworn in on 4 July 2013, on 8 July, Mansour issued a decree that proposed the introduction of amendments to the suspended constitution and a referendum to endorse them, followed by national elections. On 9 July, Mansour appointed the economist Hazem el-Biblawi as acting prime minister, Mansour made his first trip abroad as Interim President on 8 October 2013, to Saudi Arabia, a key backer of the ousting of Morsi. On 19 September 2013, Mansour announced that he would not run for the saying that he would return to his position as the head of the constitutional court. Egypt State Information Service CV Egypt State Information Service  The Supreme Constitutional Court The Supreme Constitutional Court Official website

2. Abdel Fattah el-Sisi – Abdel Fattah Saeed Hussein Khalil el-Sisi, is the sixth and incumbent President of Egypt, in office since 2014. Sisi was born in Cairo and after joining the military, held a post in Saudi Arabia before enrolling in the Egyptian Armys Command and Staff College. In 1992 Sisi trained at the Joint Services Command and Staff College in the United Kingdom, Sisi served as a mechanized infantry commander and then as directory of military intelligence. After the Egyptian revolution of 2011 and election of Mohamed Morsi to the Egyptian presidency, as chief-of-staff of the Egyptian Armed Forces, Sisi launched the 2013 Egyptian coup détat that deposed President Morsi on July 3,2013, in response to earlier mass protests on June 30. Morsi was replaced by a president, Adly Mansour, who appointed a new cabinet. The government cracked down on the Muslim Brotherhood and its Islamist supporters in the months that followed, on 14 August 2013, the Sisi-backed government carried out the August 2013 Rabaa massacre, which led to international criticism. On 26 March 2014, in response to calls from anti Muslim Brotherhood protesters, Sisi resigned from his military career, Sisi was sworn into office as President of Egypt on 8 June 2014. El-Sisi was born in Zagazig in Old Cairo on 19 November 1954, to parents Said Hussein Khalili al-Sisi, Sisi would later enroll in the Egyptian Military Academy, and upon graduating he held various command positions in the Egyptian Armed Forces and served as Egypts military attaché in Riyadh. In 1987 he attended the Egyptian Command and Staff College, in 1992 he continued his military career by enrolling in the British Command and Staff College, and in 2006 enrolled in the United States Army War College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Sisi was the youngest member of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 and he was later chosen to replace Mohamed Hussein Tantawi and serve as the commander-in-chief and Minister of Defence and Military Production on 12 August 2012. Sisis family originated from Monufia Governorate and he is the second of eight siblings. His father, a conservative but not radical Muslim, had an antiques shop for tourists in the historic bazaar of Khan el-Khalili. He and his siblings studied at the library at al-Azhar University. They were married upon el-Sisis graduation from the Egyptian Military Academy in 1977 and he became Commander of the Northern Military Region-Alexandria in 2008 and then Director of Military Intelligence and Reconnaissance. El-Sisi was the youngest member of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces of Egypt, while a member of the Supreme Council, he made controversial statements regarding allegations that Egyptian soldiers had subjected detained female demonstrators to forced virginity tests. He was the first member of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces to admit that the tests had been carried out. On 12 August 2012, Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi made a decision to replace Mohamed Hussein Tantawi and he also promoted him to the rank of colonel general. Sisi was then described by the website of FJP as a Defense minister with revolutionary taste

3. Ibrahim Mahlab – Ibrahim Roshdy Mahlab was the Prime Minister of Egypt from 1 March 2014 until 19 September 2015. Previously he served as Minister of Housing, Mahlab was a member of the Policies Committee of the National Democratic Party prior to the 2011 Egyptian revolution. Following the 2013 Egyptian revolution, Hazem el-Beblawi was made interim Prime Minister, following the resignation of el-Beblawis government, Mahlab was tasked with forming an interim government. He said that his administration would work together to restore security and safety to Egypt and he also vowed to rebuild the economy. The day after being sworn in he said that security is the issue and called for a halt to protests. While as Prime Minister he worked with high up officials of the Egyptian Coptic Church and he was reappointed on 17 June 2014 and resigned on 12 September 2015, though the cabinet remained in their posts until a new government was formed. Mahlab is married and speaks Arabic, English, and French, media related to Ibrahim Mahlab at Wikimedia Commons

4. Sherif Ismail – Sherif Ismail Mohamed is an Egyptian engineer who is the current prime minister of Egypt, appointed on 19 September 2015. He served as the minister of petroleum and mineral resources between 16 July 2013 and 12 September 2015, Ismail studied mechanical engineering at Ain Shams University and graduated in 1978. He has held posts at state-run petrochemical and natural gas firms. He served as the deputy chairman and then chairman of the Egyptian holding company for petrochemicals. Next he was named chairman of the Egyptian natural gas holding company, then he worked as the managing director of the state-run oil holding company, Ganoub El Wadi Petroleum Holding Company. And became chairman of the company and he was appointed oil minister on 16 July 2013 to the interim cabinet led by Hazem Al Beblawi. He replaced Sherif Hassan Haddara in the post, media related to Sherif Ismail at Wikimedia Commons

5. Egyptian Armed Forces – In addition, Egypt maintains large paramilitary forces. The Central Security Forces comes under the control of the ministry of interior, the Border Guard Forces, and The National Guard, comes under the control of the Ministry of Defence. The Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, the uniformed officer, is Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi. The Armed Forces inventory includes equipment from different countries around the world, to bolster stability and moderation in the region, Egypt has provided military assistance and training to a number of other African and Arab states. Although not a NATO member, Egypt remains a strong military, the Egyptian military is one of the strongest in the region, and gives Egypt regional military supremacy rivaled only by Israel, besides being one of the strongest in Africa. Egypt is one of the few countries in the Middle East, the Armed Forces enjoy considerable power and independence within the Egyptian state. They are also influential in business, engaging in road and housing construction, consumer goods, resort management, much military information is not made publicly available, including budget information, the names of the general officers and the military’s size. According to journalist Joshua Hammer, as much as 40% of the Egyptian economy is controlled by the Egyptian military. The inventory of the Egyptian armed forces includes equipment from the United States, France, Brazil, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, conscripts with a General Secondary School Degree serve two years as enlisted personnel. Conscripts with a university degree serve one year as enlisted personnel or three years as a reserve officer, officers for the army are trained at the Egyptian Military Academy. The Egyptian Air Force or EAF is the branch of the Egyptian Armed Forces. Currently, the backbone of the EAF is the F-16, the EAF is considered to be the strongest in Africa and one of the strongest in the Middle East. The Mirage 2000 is the other modern interceptor used by the EAF, the Egyptian Air Force has 216 F-16s making it the 4th largest operator of the F-16 in the World. The Air Force is undergoing massive modernization, mikoyan confirmed that talks with Egypt are underway for the sale of 40 Mig-29SMT jet-fighters with a possible additional batch of 60-80 planes. The Egyptian Air Defense Command or ADF is Egypts military command responsible for air defense and its commander is Lieutenant General Abd El Aziz Seif-Eldeen. Although the Egyptian Navy is the smallest branch of the military, the Egyptian Navy is known to be the strongest in the African continent, and the largest in the Middle East in spite of the rapid growth of other countries navies within the region. Some fleet units are stationed in the Red Sea, but the bulk of the remains in the Mediterranean. Navy headquarters and the operational and training base are located at Ras el Tin near Alexandria

6. Mohamed Morsi – He was the first democratically elected head of state in the 5000 years of Egyptian history, in the election after the Egyptian revolution of 2011. These issues, along with complaints of prosecutions of journalists and attacks on nonviolent demonstrators, as part of a compromise, Morsi rescinded the decrees. In the referendum he held on the new constitution it was approved by two thirds of voters. On 30 June 2013, protests erupted across Egypt, which saw protesters calling for the presidents resignation, the military suspended the constitution and established a new administration now led by General Abdel Fatah al-Sisi. The Muslim Brotherhood protested against the coup, but the pro-Morsi protests were crushed in the August 2013 Rabaa massacre in which at least 817 civilians were massacred. Opposition leader Elbaradei quit in protest of the massacre and his death sentence was overturned, so he will receive a retrial. However, Morsi is still currently imprisoned, Mohamed Morsi was born in the Sharqia Governorate, in northern Egypt, of modest provincial origin, in the village of El Adwah, north of Cairo, on 8 August 1951. His father was a farmer and his mother a housewife and he is the eldest of five brothers, and told journalists that he remembers being taken to school on the back of a donkey. In the late 1960s, he moved to Cairo to study at Cairo University and he fulfilled his military service in the Egyptian Army from 1975 to 1976, serving in the chemical warfare unit. He then resumed his studies at Cairo University and earned an MS in metallurgical engineering in 1978, Morsi then earned a government scholarship that enabled him to study in the United States. He received a PhD in materials science from the University of Southern California in 1982 with his dissertation High-Temperature Electrical Conductivity, while living in the United States, Morsi became an Asst. Prof. At the California State University, Northridge from 1982 to 1985, Morsi, an expert on precision metal surfaces, also worked for NASA in the early 1980s, helping to develop Space Shuttle engines. In 1985, Morsi quit his job at CSUN and returned to Egypt, becoming a professor at Zagazig University, Morsi was a lecturer at Zagazig Universitys engineering department until 2010. Morsi was first elected to parliament in 2000 and he served as a Member of Parliament from 2000 to 2005, officially as an independent candidate because the Brotherhood was technically barred from running candidates for office under Mubarak. While serving in this capacity in 2010, Morsi stated that the solution is nothing. Morsi condemned the September 11 attacks as horrific crime against innocent civilians, however, he accused the United States of using the 9/11 attacks as a pretext for invading Afghanistan and Iraq, and claimed that the US had not provided evidence that the attackers were Muslims. He also stated that the aircraft collision alone did not bring down the World Trade Center, such views are held by most Egyptians, including Egyptian liberals. His comments drew criticism in the United States, Morsi was arrested along with 24 other Muslim Brotherhood leaders on 28 January 2011

7. Sami Hafez Anan – Lieutenant General Sami Hafez Anan or Enan is an Egyptian military officer. He was the Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces until his retirement was announced by President Mohamed Morsi on 12 August 2012 and he commanded a brigade from 1992. From 1990 to 1993 he was the Egyptian Defence Attaché to Morocco, from 1996 to 1998 he reportedly commanded the 5th Air Defence Division. More recently he served as the Commander of the Egyptian Air Defence Forces from 2001 to 2005 and he served as Deputy Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces. On 2 October 2012, the Egyptian public prosecutor announced that Anan would be investigated for corruption, when the 2011 Egyptian Revolution began in January 2011, Anan was in Washington for a week of meetings with senior American officers. Cutting his visit short, he returned to Egypt on 28 January, as the commander of an army of 468,000 troops, he was considered likely to play a crucial role in the political uncertainty surrounding the protests. On 1 February 2011, the UKs Channel 4 News reported that the United States was pressing for Anan to play a role in coordinating interim arrangements for government in Egypt after Hosni Mubarak. According to Whitcomb, Enan complained about the effect that cuts were having on the military as the Mubarak administration dealt with political. The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces is the body of 18 senior military men, including Anan, only Hussein Tantawi ranked ahead of Anan on the armed forces website and in the Council at that time, according to Al Jazeera. Also, the said, the Muslim Brotherhood has described as incorruptible and as one of its cleric put it. As the newspaper saw it, this gave the Soviet-trained general an unusual span of support in the post-Mubarak government, Anan formed the Arabism Egypt Party in 2014, which will run in the Egyptian 2015 parliamentary election. Chief of Staff at the Egyptian Armed Forces Sami Hafez Anan collected news and commentary at Al Jazeera English Biography at silobreaker. com

8. Egypt – Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba to the east, the Red Sea to the east and south, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, and across from the Sinai Peninsula lies Saudi Arabia, although Jordan and it is the worlds only contiguous Afrasian nation. Egypt has among the longest histories of any country, emerging as one of the worlds first nation states in the tenth millennium BC. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt experienced some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. One of the earliest centres of Christianity, Egypt was Islamised in the century and remains a predominantly Muslim country. With over 92 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa and the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa, and the fifteenth-most populous in the world. The great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres, the large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypts territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypts residents live in areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria. Modern Egypt is considered to be a regional and middle power, with significant cultural, political, and military influence in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world. Egypts economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, Egypt is a member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, African Union, and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. Miṣr is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern name of Egypt. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew מִצְרַיִם‎, the oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian

9. Egyptian Army – The Egyptian Army is the largest service branch within the Egyptian Armed Forces, and is the largest army in Africa. The modern army was established during the reign of Muhammad Ali Pasha, the Egyptian army was also engaged heavily in the protracted North Yemen Civil War, and the brief Libyan-Egyptian War in July 1977. As of 2014, the army has a strength of 310,000 soldiers, of which, approximately 90. For most parts of its history, ancient Egypt was unified under one government. The main military concern for the nation was to keep enemies out, the arid plains they wanted to get rid of and deserts surrounding Egypt were inhabited by nomadic tribes who occasionally tried to raid or settle in the fertile Nile river valley. Nevertheless, the expanses of the desert formed a barrier that protected the river valley and was almost impossible for massive armies to cross. The Egyptians built fortresses and outposts along the borders east and west of the Nile Delta, in the Eastern Desert, small garrisons could prevent minor incursions, but if a large force was detected a message was sent for the main army corps. Most Egyptian cities lacked city walls and other defenses, the history of ancient Egypt is divided into three kingdoms and two intermediate periods. During the three kingdoms Egypt was unified under one government, during the intermediate periods government control was in the hands of the various nomes and various foreigners. The geography of Egypt served to isolate the country and allowed it to thrive and this circumstance set the stage for many of Egypts military conquests. They weakened their enemies by using small projectile weapons, like bows and arrows and they also had chariots which they used to charge at the enemy. Following his seizure of power in Egypt, and declaration of himself as khedive of the country, Muhammad Ali Pasha set about establishing a bona fide Egyptian military. Prior to his rule, Egypt had been governed by the Ottoman Empire, to further this aim, he brought in European weapons and expertise, and built an army that defeated the Ottoman Sultan, wresting control from the Porte of the Levant, and Hejaz. Egypt was involved in the long-running 1881–99 Mahdist War in the Sudan, during Muhammad Ali Pashas reign, the Egyptian army became a much more strictly regimented and professional army. The recruits were separated from daily life and a sense of the impersonal of law was imposed. Muhammad Ali Pasha previously attempted to create an army of Sudanese slaves and Mamluks, instead, the Pasha enforced conscription in 1822 and the new military recruits were mostly Egyptian farmers, also known as fellah. Because of harsh military practices, the 130,000 soldiers conscripted in 1822 revolted in the south in 1824, the Pashas goal was to create military order through indoctrination by two new major key practices, isolation and surveillance. In previous times, the wives and family were allowed to follow the army wherever they camped and this was no longer the case

10. Egyptian Army ranks – Egyptian Army ranks, The Egyptian army ranks were changed after the revolution of 1952 and the fall of the monarchy. In the year 1958 the crown was replaced by the Eagle of Saladin, the Commander-in-Chief of the Egyptian Armed Forces must be at least Colonel General. The Field Marshal rank is only to the Commander-in-Chief of the Egyptian Armed Forces. Egyptian Army Uniform Comparative military ranks Egyptian Air Force ranks Egyptian Navy ranks Egyptian Army Rank insignia - Army

11. Gulf War – The Iraqi Armys occupation of Kuwait that began 2 August 1990 was met with international condemnation, and brought immediate economic sanctions against Iraq by members of the UN Security Council. US President George H. W. Bush deployed US forces into Saudi Arabia, an array of nations joined the coalition, the largest military alliance since World War II. The great majority of the military forces were from the US, with Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom. Kuwait and Saudi Arabia paid around US$32 billion of the US$60 billion cost, the war was marked by the introduction of live news broadcasts from the front lines of the battle, principally by the US network CNN. The war has also earned the nickname Video Game War after the daily broadcast of images from cameras on board US bombers during Operation Desert Storm. The initial conflict to expel Iraqi troops from Kuwait began with an aerial and naval bombardment on 17 January 1991 and this was followed by a ground assault on 24 February. This was a victory for the coalition forces, who liberated Kuwait. The coalition ceased its advance, and declared a ceasefire 100 hours after the campaign started. Aerial and ground combat was confined to Iraq, Kuwait, Iraq launched Scud missiles against coalition military targets in Saudi Arabia and against Israel. The following names have been used to describe the conflict itself, Gulf War, a problem with these terms is that the usage is ambiguous, having now been applied to at least three conflicts, see Gulf War. The use of the term Persian Gulf is also disputed, see Persian Gulf naming dispute, with no consensus of naming, various publications have attempted to refine the name. Other language terms include French, la Guerre du Golfe and German, Golfkrieg, German, Zweiter Golfkrieg, French, most of the coalition states used various names for their operations and the wars operational phases. Operation Desert Storm was the US name of the conflict from 17 January 1991. Operation Desert Sabre was the US name for the offensive against the Iraqi Army in the Kuwaiti Theater of Operations from 24–28 February 1991, in itself. Operation Desert Farewell was the given to the return of US units and equipment to the US in 1991 after Kuwaits liberation. Operation Granby was the British name for British military activities during the operations, Opération Daguet was the French name for French military activities in the conflict. Operation Friction was the name of the Canadian operations Operazione Locusta was the Italian name for the operations, in addition, various phases of each operation may have a unique operational name. The US divided the conflict into three campaigns, Defense of Saudi Arabian country for the period 2 August 1990, through 16 January 1991

12. Sinai insurgency – Since 2011, the central authorities have attempted to restore their presence in the Sinai through both political and military measures. Egypt launched two military operations, known as Operation Eagle in mid-2011 and then Operation Sinai in mid-2012, in May 2013, following an abduction of Egyptian officers, violence in the Sinai surged once again. Following the 2013 Egyptian coup détat, which resulted in the ousting of Egyptian president Mohamed Morsi, in 2014, elements of the Ansar Bait al-Maqdis group claimed allegiance to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and proclaimed themselves as the Sinai Province. Security officials say militants based in Libya have established ties with Sinai Province, since the start of the conflict, dozens of civilians were killed either in military operations or kidnapped and then beheaded by militants. Administratively, the Sinai Peninsula is divided into two governorates, the South Sinai Governorate and the North Sinai Governorate, sufism was previously dominant in the region before militant jihadi ideas began to take hold. The Sinai peninsula has long known for its lawlessness, having historically served as a smuggling route for weapons. Security provisions in the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty of 1979 have institutionalized a diminished security presence in the area, moreover, the limited government-directed investment and development in Sinai has discriminated against the local Bedouin population, a population that values tribal allegiance over all else. The combination of Sinais harsh terrain and lack of resources have kept the area poor, following the January 2011 uprising that toppled Hosni Mubaraks regime, the country became increasingly destabilized, creating a security vacuum in the Sinai peninsula. Radical Islamic elements in Sinai exploited the opportunity, using the environment, in launching several waves of attacks upon Egyptian military. Since the 2011 uprising against the Mubarak regime in Egypt, there has been increasing instability in the Sinai Peninsula, in addition the collapse of the Libyan regime increased the quantity and sophistication of weapons being smuggled into the area. The situation provided local Bedouin with an opportunity to assert their authority, leading to clashes with Egyptian security forces, hard-line militant Muslims used Sinai as a launch-point for attacks against Israel and turned on the Egyptian state. Focusing on Egypts security establishment and the Sinais Arab Gas Pipeline, in August 2011, Operation Eagle was launched, in an effort to restore law and order, driving Islamist insurgents and criminal gangs out of North Sinais urban centers. As well as, attempting to severe the link between militant groups in the Sinai and Gaza, by augmenting its control over the Gaza border crossing. The operation had limited success, and a week into the operation, on 5 August 2012, an attack on the Rafah barracks shook the Egyptian military and population. Only a month into his term, President Mohamed Morsi sacked the defence minister. Operation Sinai was launched, aimed at eliminating armed Islamist groups, protecting the Suez Canal, during the operation,32 militants and suspects were killed and 38 arrested, while 2 civilians had been killed by early September 2012. In an increase in security forces came under near daily attack throughout July to August 2013. In 2013, the new authorities adopted an aggressive strategy, leading to mass arrests

13. February 2015 Egyptian airstrikes in Libya – Within hours, the Egyptian Air Force responded with airstrikes against ISIL training camps and weapons stockpiles in retaliation for the killings. Warplanes acting under orders from the Libyan government also struck targets in Derna, the air strikes had allegedly killed up to 64 ISIL militants, including three of the leadership, in the coastal cities of Derna and Sirte. Libyan media reported that at least 35 more Egyptians had been rounded up by ISIL in retaliation for the air raids, in 2011, a NATO-backed uprising toppled Libyas longtime ruler Muammar Gaddafi, and the country has witnessed instability and unrest ever since. Due to this, the government in Egypt had many reasons to support Haftars rebellion. He previously vowed not to allow the turmoil there to threaten Egypts national security, three days later, a video showed up purportedly showing the beheading of the captives on a beach. The Coptic Church of Egypt confirmed the deaths, while Al-Azhar condemned the incident, Sisi announced a seven-day period of national mourning and called for an urgent meeting with the countrys top security body. The beheadings came a day before Egypt signed a $5.9 billion arms deal to purchase 24 Dassault Rafale warplanes from France, Egypt also bought a FREMM multipurpose frigate as well as missiles. The deal is believed by analysts to be an attempt by Sisi to both upgrade Egypts military hardware and to diversify its suppliers, patricia Adam, president of the French parliaments defense committee, said that Egypt needed planes quickly. You just need to take a look at whats happening at its border and they are especially worried by whats happening in Libya, she said. French defense minister, Jean-Yves Le Drian, said that the Copts execution was one of the reasons why the Egyptian government wanted to boost its security. Hours later, six Egyptian F-16 jets, in coordination with the Libyan air force, Egypts raids were focused on Derna, while the Libyan jets pounded ISIL positions in Sirte and Bin Jawad. Egypts military said in a statement that the airstrikes were precise, the statement added that training camps and weapons and ammunition caches were among the targets. Warplanes acting under orders from the official Libyan government also struck targets in Derna, a Libyan official stated that more joint airstrikes would follow. The first wave of Egyptian airstrikes killed up to 81 ISIL fighters, Libyas air force chief, Saqr Geroushi, claimed that 40 to 50 people had been killed. Al Jazeera reported that seven civilians were killed during the airstrikes, Libya Herald reported that seven Egyptians initially went missing, but that the number later rose to thirty-five. On February 20, three Egyptian engineers working for a French company in Libya have been kidnapped on their way to Sabha in the southeast, Egypts foreign ministry later confirmed the abduction and said that it contacted Libyan authorities to identify the group behind the incident. The plane was carrying Egyptian and Libyan citizens for their safety, a spokesman for the Libya Dawn-backed government in Tripoli said that two or three MiG jets, possibly leftovers from Gaddafis air force, were used in the operation. On February 20, at least 40 people have killed in three bomb attacks by ISIL militants in the town of Al Qubbah

14. Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen – Code-named Operation Decisive Storm, the intervention initially consisted of a bombing campaign on Houthi Rebels and later saw a naval blockade and the deployment of ground forces into Yemen. Fighter jets and ground forces from Egypt, Morocco, Jordan, Sudan, Djibouti, Eritrea and Somalia made their airspace, territorial waters and military bases available to the coalition. The United States provided intelligence and logistical support, including aerial refueling and it also accelerated the sale of weapons to coalition states. US and Britain have deployed their military personnel in the command and control centre responsible for Saudi-led air strikes on Yemen, Pakistan was called on by Saudi Arabia to join the coalition, but its parliament voted to maintain neutrality. On 21 April 2015, the Saudi-led military coalition announced an end to Operation Decisive Storm, the kingdom and its coalition partners said they would be launching political and peace efforts, which they called Operation Restoring Hope. However, the coalition did not rule out using force, saying it would respond to threats, the war has received widespread criticism and had a dramatic worsening effect on the humanitarian situation, that reached the level of a humanitarian disaster or humanitarian catastrophe. On 1 July UN declared for Yemen a level-three emergency – the highest UN emergency level – for a period of six months, Human rights groups repeatedly blamed the Saudi-led military coalition for killing civilians and destroying health centers and other infrastructure with airstrikes. The de facto blockade left 78% of the Yemeni population in urgent need of food, water, aid ships are allowed, but the bulk of commercial shipping, on which the country relies, is blocked. In one occasion, coalition jets prevented an Iranian Red Crescent plane from landing by bombing Sanaa International Airports runway, as of 10 December, more than 2,500,000 people had been internally displaced by the fighting. Many countries evacuated more than 23,000 foreign citizens from Yemen, more than 1,000,000 people fled Yemen for Saudi Arabia, Djibouti, Somalia, Ethiopia, Sudan and Oman. Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, running unopposed for president, won the 2012 Yemeni elections, the Houthis, a Zaidi Shia movement and militant group thought to be backed by Iran, took control of the Yemeni government through a series of actions in 2014 and 2015. Saudi Arabia and other countries denounced this as an unconstitutional coup détat, Saudi media claim that Saleh or his son had approached Riyadh seeking such a deal. By September 2014, Houthi fighters captured Sanaa, toppling Hadis government, soon after, a peace deal was concluded between the Hadi government and the Houthis, but was not honored by either party. The deal was drafted with the intent of defining a power-sharing government, a conflict over a draft constitution resulted in the Houthis consolidating control over the Yemeni capital in January 2015. After resigning from his post alongside his prime minister and remaining under house arrest for one month. Upon arriving in Aden, Hadi withdrew his resignation, saying that the actions of the Houthis from September 2014 had amounted to a coup against him. By 25 March, forces answering to Sanaa were rapidly closing in on Aden, during the Houthis southern offensive, Saudi Arabia began a military buildup on its border with Yemen. In response, a Houthi commander boasted that his troops would counterattack against any Saudi aggression and would not stop until they had taken Riyadh, the Saudi capital

15. Arabic

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