I had a very busy and hugely productive three weeks at KITP. What an intellectual haven. My first week was spent with scientists in the program on “Flow in the Deep Earth,” who are striving to develop a coherent picture of the dynamics of our planet. A highlight was joining the group on a field trip to see some tar dikes, where tar has been seeping out of the ground spilling onto the beach for thousands of years. It was a wonderful chance to see geologists, mineralogists and geodynamicists in action, observing and discussing a very unusual natural formation and debating aspects of plate tectonic theory along the way.
During my second and third weeks, I sat in on discussions for the program “Astrophysics from LIGO’s First Black Holes,” and got to witness the birth of a new field. It felt like we were at the center of the universe, working out the new story that LIGO’s data is telling about the cosmos.
In between those activities, there was still plenty of time and inspiration left to work on ongoing writing projects, and to take walks or have lunch alongside the Pacific Ocean, steps away from KITP.
I found both the permanent and visiting scientists to be very welcoming and generous with their time. One piece of advice for future writers-in-residence, which was passed on to me by an alumnus and by director Lars Bildsten, is to give a talk as early as possible in the course of your stay. As an outsider to the scientific communities you’ll be trying to infiltrate, you’ll notice a big difference in people’s reception of you when they know what you’re about. Another bit of advice is to be bold, and to ask scientists for interviews even when they seem busy. They’ll end up getting as much out of it as you do.
Piling on the homework doesn't help kids do better in school. In fact, it can lower their test scores.
That's the conclusion of a group of Australian researchers, who have taken the aggregate results of several recent studies investigating the relationship between time spent on homework and students' academic performance.
According to Richard Walker, an educational psychologist at Sydney University, data shows that in countries where more time is spent on homework, students score lower on a standardized test called the Program for International Student Assessment, or PISA. The same correlation is also seen when comparing homework time and test performance at schools within countries. Past studies have also demonstrated this basic trend.
Inundating children with hours of homework each night is detrimental, the research suggests, while an hour or two per week usually doesn't impact test scores one way or the other. However, homework only bolsters students' academic performance during their last three years of grade school. "There is little benefit for most students until senior high school (grades 10-12)," Walker told Life's Little Mysteries.
The research is detailed in his new book, "Reforming Homework: Practices, Learning and Policies" (Palgrave Macmillan, 2012).
The same basic finding holds true across the globe, including in the U.S., according to Gerald LeTendre of Pennsylvania State University. He and his colleagues have found that teachers typically give take-home assignments that are unhelpful busy work. Assigning homework "appeared to be a remedial strategy (a consequence of not covering topics in class, exercises for students struggling, a way to supplement poor quality educational settings), and not an advancement strategy (work designed to accelerate, improve or get students to excel)," LeTendre wrote in an email. [Kids Believe Literally Everything They Read Online, Even Tree Octopuses]
This type of remedial homework tends to produce marginally lower test scores compared with children who are not given the work. Even the helpful, advancing kind of assignments ought to be limited; Harris Cooper, a professor of education at Duke University, has recommended that students be given no more than 10 to 15 minutes of homework per night in second grade, with an increase of no more than 10 to 15 minutes in each successive year.
Most homework's neutral or negative impact on students' academic performance implies there are better ways for them to spend their after school hours than completing worksheets. So, what should they be doing? According to LeTendre, learning to play a musical instrument orparticipating in clubs and sports all seem beneficial, but there's no one answer that applies to everyone.
"These after-school activities have much more diffuse goals than single subject test scores," he wrote. "When I talk to parents … they want their kids to be well-rounded, creative, happy individuals — not just kids who ace the tests."
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