मुनामदन झयाउरे लयमा आधारित कविता हो जुन नेपाली साहितयको सबैभनदा परखयात कृति हो । मुनमदनलाई लिएर सन १८५९ मा आफनो मृतयु अघि उनले भनेका थिए म मरेपछि मेरा सबै कृति जलाइदिए पनि मुना मदन चाही नजलाउनु । मुनामदन अहिले सममकै सबैभनदा धेरै बिकरि भएको पुसतक हो ।
मुना मदन एक कारुणिक कावय हो जसले मुना र मदनको बिछोडको परेम कहानी को बरणन गरछ । मदन पैसा कमाउनको लागि विदेश जानछ र फरकने करममामुनामदन झ्याउरे लयमा आधारित कविता हो जुन नेपाली साहित्यको सबैभन्दा प्रख्यात कृति हो । मुनमदनलाई लिएर सन् १८५९ मा आफ्नो मृत्यु अघि उनले भनेका थिए म मरेपछि मेरा सबै कृति जलाइदिए पनि मुना मदन चाही नजलाउनु । मुनामदन अहिले सम्मकै सबैभन्दा धेरै बिक्रि भएको पुस्तक हो ।
मुना मदन एक कारुणिक काव्य हो जसले मुना र मदनको बिछोडको प्रेम कहानी को बर्णन गर्छ । मदन पैसा कमाउनको लागि विदेश जान्छ र फर्कने क्रममा बाटोमा बिरामी हुन्छ । बिरामी मदनलाई बीच बाटोमै छोडेर उसका साथिहरु आउछन र मदनको मृत्यु भएको कुरा भन्छन । यो कुराले मुनालाई निकै पिडा हुन्छ । येही पिडा साहना नसकी शोकमै मुनाको मृत्यु हुन्छ । उता मदनलाई बाटोमा अलपत्र रुपमा एक जना भोटेले फेला पार्छ । उसले मदनको खुबै स्याहार गर्छ (तेस् बेला मदन् यो भन्छ् " छेत्रिको छोरो यो पाउ छुन्छ घिनले छुदैन,मनिस् ठुलो दिलले हुन्छ जातले हुदैन") र जब मदन निको भएर घर फर्कन्छ, त्यो बेला उसको परिवार मुना र आमा को मृत्यु भएको खबर सुनेर ऊ मर्माहत हुन्छ ।...more
Paperback, 40 pages
Published 2007 by साझा प्रकाशन
Laxmi Prasad Devkota
Laxmi Prasad Devkota
|Minister of Nepal for Education and Swayat Shasan|
26 July 1957 – 15 May 1958
|Born||12 November 1909|
Dhobidhara, Kathmandu, Nepal
|Died||14 September 1959 (aged 50)|
5and 4 Sons
|Occupation||Poet, Playwright and Scholar|
Laxmi Prasad Devkota (Nepali: लक्ष्मीप्रसाद देवकोटा, 12 November 1909 – 14 September 1959) was a Nepalipoet, playwright, and novelist. Honoured with the title of Maha Kavi (literal translation: 'Great Poet') in Nepali literature,and is known as the poet with the golden heart. Devkota is by and large regarded as the greatest poet in the history of Nepal and Nepali language. Some of his popular works include Muna Madan, Kunjini, and Sakuntala.
Devkota was born on the night of Lakshmi Pooja on 12 November 1909 (1966 Kartik 27 BS) to father Teel Madhav Devkota and mother Amar Rajyalakshmi Devi in Thatunati (now Dhobidhara), Kathmandu. He started his education at Durbar High School in Kathmandu, where he studied both in Sanskrit grammar and English. After finishing his Matriculation exams from Patna at the age of 17, Devkota pursued the Bachelor of Arts along with the Bachelor of Laws at Tri Chandra College and graduated from Patna University as a private examinee. Only after a decade from his graduation as a lawyer did he finally started working in Nepal Bhasanuwad Parishad (Publication Censor board), where he met famous Playwright of Nepal Balkrishna Sama. At the same time, he worked as a lecturer at Tri-Chandra College and Padma Kanya College.
In the late 1930s, Devkota suffered from nervous breakdowns, probably due to the death of his mother, father, and his two-month old daughter. Eventually, in 1939, he was admitted to the Mental Asylum of Rachi, India, for five months. Going into debt later in life to finance his daughters' dowries and weddings, he is reported to have said to his wife, "Tonight let's abandon the children to the care of society, and youth and I renounce this world at bedtime and take potassium cyanide or morphine or something like that."
Later years and death
Laxmi Prasad Devkota was a chain smoker throughout his life. After a long battle with cancer, Devkota died on September 14, 1959, at the ghat of Bagmati River in Pashupatinath Temple, Kathmandu.
Laxmi Prasad's son, Padma Devkota, is also a poet and writer, and served for many years as a professor at the English Department, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu.
Work and Style
Devkota contributed to Nepali literature by starting a modern Nepali language romantic movement in the country. Born in Nepal, he was the first to begin writing epic poems in Nepali literature. Nepali poetry soared to new heights with Devkota's innovative use of language.
Departing from the Sanskrit tradition that dominated the Nepali literary scene at the time, being inspired from the Newar language (original Nepali language) ballad song Ji Waya La Lachhi Maduni, he wrote Muna Madan (1930), a long narrative poem in popular jhyaure bhaka folk tune. Muna Madan is undoubtedly the most sold book in the history of Nepalese literature. Being pictured as a movie, Muna Madan was able to get selected for the Oscar Award, which also signifies the level of the creation. The work received immediate recognition from the Ranas – the country's rulers at the time. Muna Madan tells the story of Madan—a traveling merchant—who departs from his wife Muna to Tibet in a bid to earn some money. The poem describes the thematic hardships of the journey: the grief of separation, the itching longing, and the torment of death.
The ballad Ji Waya La Lachhi Maduni is a tragic song based on a newa (original inhabitant of Nepal) merchant. There are three persons in the song, the merchant, his mother, and his wife. The merchant is about to leave Kathmandu for Tibet on work. The song starts with the wife pleading with her mother-in-law to stop him, saying that it's not even been a month since she came to their home and he wants to go away. Being raised in Kathmandu, Devkota heard this song from the locals singing it at the local pati (फल्चा in Nepal language). He was highly fascinated by the song, and decided to re-write it in Khas language. Since the Rana rulers had put a ban on the newa trade, language and literature, he changed the newa merchant character from the original song to a Kshatriya (warrior class) character. Although Kshatriya people do not practice trade those days for their living, he had to write in a way that lured the Rana rulers.
The following couplet, which is among the most famous and frequently quoted lines from the epic, celebrates the triumph of humanity and compassion over the hierarchies created by caste in Nepalese culture.
क्षेत्रीको छोरो यो पाउ छुन्छ, घिनले छुँदैन
A Kshatriya touches your feet not with hatred but with love.
Considered his magnum opus, Muna Madan has remained widely popular among the lay readers of Nepali literature.
Laxmi Prasad, inspired by his five-month stay in mental asylum in 1939, wrote free-verse poem Pagal (The Lunatic).The poem deals with his usual mental ability and is considered one of the best Nepali language poems.
जरुर साथी म पागल !
Surely, my friend, insane I am
Devkota had the ability to compose long epics and poems with literary complexity and philosophical density in very short periods of time. He wrote Shakuntala, his first epic poem and also the first "Mahakavya" (epic poem) written in the Nepali language, in a mere three months. Published in 1945, Shakuntala is a voluminous work in 24 cantos based on Kālidāsa's famous Sanskrit play Abhijñānaśākuntalam. Shakuntala demonstrates Devkota's mastery of Sanskrit meter and diction which he incorporated heavily while working primarily in Nepali. According to the late scholar and translator of Devkota, David Rubin, Shakuntala is among his greatest accomplishments. "It is without doubt a remarkable work, a masterpiece of a particular kind, harmonizing various elements of a classical tradition with a modern point of view, a pastoral with a cosmic allegory, Kalidasa's romantic comedy of earthly love with a symbolic structure that points to redemption through the coinciding of sensual and sacred love."
Devkota also published several collections of short lyric poems set in various traditional and non-traditional forms and meters. Most of his poetry shows the influence of English Romantic Poets like Wordsworth and Coleridge. The title poem in the collection "Bhikhari" ("Beggar") is reminiscent of Wordsworth's "The Old Cumberland Beggar". In this poem, Devkota describes the beggar going about his ways in dire poverty and desolation, deprived of human love and material comforts. On the other hand, the beggar is also seen as the source of compassion placed in the core of suffering and destitution. Devkota connects the beggar with the divine as the ultimate fount of kindness and empathy:
कालो बादलबाट खसेको
Fallen from the black clouds
Many of his poems focus on mundane elements of the human and the natural world. The titles of his poems like "Ban वन" ("Woods"), "Kisaan किसान" ("The Peasant"), "Baadal बादल" ("Clouds") show that he sought his poetic inspiration in the commonplace and proximal aspects of the world. What resonates throughout most of his poetry is his profound faith in humanity. For instance, in the poem "Woods," the speaker goes through a series of interrogations, rejecting all forms of comfort and solace that could be offered solely to him as an individual. Instead he embraces his responsibility and concern for his fellow beings. The poem ends with the following quatrain that highlights the speaker's humanistic inclinations:
दोस्त कहाँ छन्? साथ छ को को? घर हो तिम्रो कुन देश?
Where are your friends? Who go with you? Which land is your home?
Besides poetry, Devkota also made significant contributions to the essay genre. He is considered the father of the modern Nepali essay. He defied the conventional form of essays by blatantly breaking the rules of grammar and syntax, and embracing a more fluid and colloquial style. His essays are generally satirical in tone and are characterized by their trenchant humor and ruthless criticism of the modernizing influences from the West on Nepali society. An essay titled भलादमी (Bhaladmi) or "Dignitary" criticizes a decadent trend in Nepali society to respect people based on their outward appearances and outfit rather than their actual inner worth and personality. In another essay titled के नेपाल सानो छ? (Ke Nepal Sano Cha?) "Is Nepal insignificant (small)?", he expresses deeply nationalistic sentiments inveighing against the colonial forces from British India which, he felt, were encroaching all aspects of Nepali culture. His essays are published in the collection Laxmi Nibhandha Sanghraha (लक्ष्मी निबन्धसङ्ग्रह).
He was a reallygifted person. He wrote khanda kabya Sakuntala in only three months, in the time he could spare from full time clerical work. His friends challenged him to do so If he could and he did it. So we can say he wrote such a beautiful book in about a week.
Laxmi Prasad Devkota was not active in any well-established political party but his poetry consistently embodies an attitude of rebellion against the oppresive Rana dynasty. During his self-exile in Varanasi, he started working as editor of Yugvani newspaper of the Nepali Congress party, leading to confiscation of all his Nepali property by the Rana Government. After Introduction of democracy through Revolution of 1951, Devkota was appointed as a member of Nepal Shalakar Samiti in 1952 by King Tribhuvan. Later in 1957 he was appointed as Minister of Education and Autonomous Governance under the premiership of Kunwar Inderjit Singh.
Poetry / Short Novels / Essays / Novel
- ^MunaArchived 2013-12-06 at the Wayback Machine. Being born on the auspicious day of Laxmi pooja(the goddess of wealth), he was regarded as the gift of goddess Laxmi, but in contradiction to it, he became a gift of goddess Saraswati(goddess of knowledge and education) .
- ^MunaArchived 2013-12-06 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^GorkhapatraArchived 2013-12-06 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^Pande, N. Mahakavi Devkota, p. 30.
- ^Rubin, David (translator). Nepali Visions, Nepali Dreams: The Poetry of Laxmiprasad Devkota. Columbia University Press, 1980, p. 40.