Modern Chemistry Chapter 1 Homework 1-6

Presentation on theme: "Modern Chemistry Chapter 15 Acid-Base Titration and pH"— Presentation transcript:

1 Modern Chemistry Chapter 15 Acid-Base Titration and pH
Sections 1 & 2Aqueous Solutions and the Concept of pHDetermining pH and TitrationsChapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

2 Aqueous Solutions and the Concept of pH
Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

3 Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p. 499-510
Chapter 15 VocabularySelf IonizationpHpOHAcid-base indicatorTransition intervalTitrationEquivalence PointEndpointStandard SolutionPrimary StandardStandardizationChapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

4 Self Ionization of Water
Two water molecules produce a hydronium ion and a hydroxide ion by transfer of a proton.Water is a weak electrolyte.H2O(l) + H2O(l)  H3O+(aq) + OH-(aq)At 25C: [H3O+] = [OH-] = 1.0 x 10-7 MChapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

5 Self Ionization of Water
BASEACIDACIDBASE[H3O+] = 1x10-7M[OH-] = 1x10-7Mp.499Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

6 Ionization Constant for H2O
H2O(l) + H2O(l)  H3O+(aq) + OH-(aq)The Keq for water = Kw = [H3O+] [OH-]1Kw = [H3O+] [OH-] = 1.0 x at 25CThis is the ionization constant for water.Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

7 H3O+ and OH- BASIC [H3O+] < [OH-] NEUTRAL [H3O+] = [OH-]
ACIDIC [H3O+] > [OH-]H3O+OH-H3O+OH-OH-H3O+Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

8 Calculating [H3O+] [OH-]
If [H3O+] is known then use1.0 x = [H3O+] [OH-]to get [OH-].This works for strong and weak acids.Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

9 Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p. 499-510
Concentrations & KwChapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

10 Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p. 499-510
Sample Problems p.502A 1.0 x 10–4 M solution of HNO3 has been prepared for a laboratory experiment.Calculate the [H3O+] of this solution.Calculate the [OH–].a. 1.0 × 10−4 M H3O b. 1.0 × 10−10 M OH-Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

11 Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p. 499-510
Practice Problems p.5021. Determine the hydronium and hydroxide ion concentrations in a solution that is 1 × 10−4 M HCl.2. Determine the hydronium and hydroxide ion concentrations in a solution that is 1.0 × 10−3 M HNO3.[H3O+] = 1 × 10−4 M; [OH−] = 1 × 10−10 M[H3O+] = 1.0 × 10−3 M;[OH−] = 1.0 × 10−11 MChapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

12 Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p. 499-510
Practice Problems p.5023. Determine the hydronium and hydroxide ion concentrations in a solution that is 3.0 × 10−2 M NaOH.4. Determine the hydronium and hydroxide ion concentrations in a solution that is 1.0 × 10−4 M Ca(OH)2.[H3O+] = 3.3 × 10−13 M;[OH−] = 3.0 × 10−2 M[H3O+] = 5.0 × 10−11 M;[OH−] = 2.0 × 10−4 MChapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

13 Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p. 499-510
The pH ScalepH – the negative of the common log of the hydronium ion concentrationBased on the hydrogen ion concentration.Pouvoir hydrogéne (french) : hydrogen powerScale of 0-14<7 Acidic =7 Neutral >7BasicChapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

14 pH = -log [H3O+] The pH Scale log 1.0 x 10 = 
What is the pH if [H3O+]= 1.0 x 10-12?log 1.0 x = -12- log 1.0 x = 12Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

15 Relationship of [H3O+] to [OH-] and pH
Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

16 Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p. 499-510
The pH ScalepH = -log [H3O+]If 1.00 x = [H3O+] [OH-] what is the highest that [H3O+] can be?1 x 10 0pH=0What is the lowest that [H3O+] can be?1 xpH=14Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

17 Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p. 499-510
pH Scalep. 503Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

18 Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p. 499-510
The pH ScaleChapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

19 Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p. 499-510
pH of Common Materialsp. 504Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

20 Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p. 499-510
pH of Common Materialsp. 512Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

21 Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p. 499-510
pH = 4 = -log [H3O+]pH = -log [2.3x10-8]  [EE] Using Your CalculatorChapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

22 Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p. 499-510
Sample Problems p.505What is the pH of a 1.0 x 10–3 M NaOH solution?11.00Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

23 Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p. 499-510
Practice Problems p.505Determine the pH of the following solutions:a. 1 × 10−3 M HClb. 1.0 × 10−5 M HNO3c. 1 × 10−4 M NaOHd. 1.0 × 10−2 M KOHa. pH = 3.0b. pH = 5.00c. pH = 10.0d. pH = 12.00Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

24 Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p. 499-510
Sample Problems p.506What is the pH of a solution if the [H3O+] is 3.4 x 10–5 M?4.47Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

25 Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p. 499-510
Practice Problems p.5061. What is the pH of a solution if the [H3O+] is 6.7 × 10−4 M?2. What is the pH of a solution with a hydronium ion concentration of 2.5 × 10−2 M?3. Determine the pH of a 2.5 × 10−6 M HNO3 solution.4. Determine the pH of a 2.0 × 10−2 M Sr(OH)2 solution.1. pH = 3.172. pH = 1.603. pH = 5.604. pH = 12.60Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

26 Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p. 499-510
Sample Problems p.507Determine the hydronium ion concentration of an aqueous solution that has a pH of 4.0.[H3O+] = 1 × 10−4 MChapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

27 Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p. 499-510
Practice Problems p.5081. The pH of a solution is determined to be 5.0.What is the hydronium ion concentration of this solution?2. The pH of a solution is determined to be 12.0.What is the hydronium ion concentration of this solution?[H3O+] = 1 × 10−5 M[H3O+] = 1 × 10−12 MChapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

28 Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p. 499-510
Practice Problems p.5083. The pH of an aqueous solution is measured as Calculate the [H3O+] and the [OH−].4. The pH of an aqueous solution is Determine [H3O+].[H3O+] = 3.2 × 10−2 M; [OH−] = 3.2 × 10−13 M[H3O+] = 2.1 × 10−4 MChapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

29 Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p. 499-510
pOHA scale based on the hydroxide ion concentration0-14<7 basic =7 neutral >7 acidicChapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

30 Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p. 499-510
pOH and HydroxideChapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

31 [H3O+] for Strong & Weak Acids
For Strong AcidsHCl  H Cl-0.10M M MUse the mole ratio.REVIEWFor Weak AcidsHF  H F-0.10M <0.10M <0.10MUse the “I.C.E.” or use equilibrium concentrations.Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

32 Calculating [H3O+] [OH-]
Ka= [negative ion] [H3O+][acid molarity]KaKwKw = 1.00 x = [H3O+] [OH-]pH = -log [H3O+]pHChapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

33 Calculating [H3O+] [OH-]
Ka[H3O+].pHKwChapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

34 Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p. 499-510
Weak Acid ProblemsAssume that enough lactic acid, CH3CHOHCOOH, is dissolved in sour milk to give a solution concentration of 0.10 M lactic acid. A pH meter show that the pH of the sour milk is Calculate the Ka for the equilibrium system. CH3CHOHCOOH  CH3CHOHCOO- + H+1.44 x 10-4Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

35 Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p. 499-510
Weak Acid ProblemsWhen the [HNO2] is 0.08M, the pH of the acid is 2.4 Calculate the Ka for the nitrous acid. HNO2+H2OH3O+ + NO2-2.1 x 10-4Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

36 Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p. 499-510
Acid & Base StrengthChapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

37 Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p. 499-510
Ch 15 Sec 1 HomeworkCalculating [H3O+], [OH-], Ka & pHWorksheetChapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

38 Antacids & Neutralization
Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

39 Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p. 499-510
Ch 15 Sec 1 HomeworkPage 509 # 1-6Chapter 15 Sec 1 The Concept of pH p

Holt Modern Chemistry ReviewCHAPTER 1: MATTER AND CHANGEInclude graphic organizer(s) for this chapterLOOK AT MIDTERM EXAM REVIEW AND ADD NOTES FROM IT TO ALLCHAPTER REVIEW PAGESThe following pages contain the bulk (but not all) of the information for the chapter 1 test. Focus on this content, but make sure to review class notes, activities, handouts, questions,etc. If you study this document and NOTHING else, you should at least be able to PASS the test.***** Test items will be recall, examples, and/or applicationof this content. *****OUTCOMESCollaborate with peer(s) to understand chemistry content (C C)Communicate chemistry content to teacher and peer(s) (E C) 1.1: Distinguish between types of research – basic, applied, and technological development. (F &PK)1.2: Distinguish between the physical and chemical properties of matter. (F & PK)1.2: Distinguish among homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures, elements, and compounds.(F & PK)1.3: List properties of metals and non-metals. (T & R)2.3: Determine signiFcant Fgures. (F & PK)1.1: CHEMISTRY IS A PHYSICAL SCIENCEVocabulary ochemistry-- the scientiFc study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the changes that matter undergoesochemical-- any substance with a deFned compositionSection HighlightsoChemistry is the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the changes that matter undergoes.oA chemical is any substance that has a deFnite composition or is used or produced in a chemical process.oBasic research is carried out for the sake of increasing knowledge. Applied research is carried out to solve practical problems. Technological development involves the use of existing knowledge to make life easier or more convenient.

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