Digital India Essay In Kannada Language Islamic

For other uses, see Mangalore (disambiguation).

Not to be confused with Bangalore.

Mangaluru
Corporation City
Mangaluru

Left to right:Town Hall, Our Lady of Rosary Church, Yenepoya University, Kudroli Gokarnanatheshwara Temple, Infosys Kottara campus, Tannirbhavi Beach, Shiva statue, Forum Fiza Mall

Mangaluru

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Mangaluru

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Coordinates: 12°50′23″N74°47′24″E / 12.83982°N 74.78994°E / 12.83982; 74.78994Coordinates: 12°50′23″N74°47′24″E / 12.83982°N 74.78994°E / 12.83982; 74.78994
Country India
StateKarnataka
DistrictDakshina Kannada
Region(s)Tulu Nadu
TalukMangalore
Named forMangaladevi
Government
 • TypeMayor–Council
 • BodyMangalore City Corporation
 • MayorKavita Sanil
 • Deputy MayorRajaneesh
 • Police CommissionerT R Suresh
Area[2]
 • Corporation City184 km2 (71 sq mi)
Elevation22 m (72 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Corporation City499,487[1]
 • Metro623,841[3]
Demonym(s)Mangalorean, Kuḍladar, Maṅgaḷūrinavaru, Mangaluriga, Kodialcho, Koḍiyāḷgar
Languages
 • AdministrativeTulu, Kannada, English
 • RegionalTulu, Konkani, Beary, Koraga, Havyaka Kannada
Time zoneIST (UTC+5:30)
PIN575001 to 575030[4]
Telephone code+91-(0)824
Vehicle registrationKA-19, KA-62
Sex ratio1016[1]
Human Development Index 0.83[5]
very high
Literacy94.03%[6]
Websitewww.mangalorecity.mrc.gov.in

Mangalore, officially known as Mangaluru, is the chief port city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It is located about 352 km (219 mi) west of the state capital, Bengaluru, between the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghats mountain range. The population of the urban agglomeration was 623,841, according to the provisional results of the 2011 national census of India.

Mangalore developed as a port in the Arabian Sea during ancient times and became a major port of India. This port handles 75 per cent of India's coffee and cashew exports. The port is used as a staging point for sea traffic along the Malabar Coast. This coastal city was ruled by several major powers, including the Kadambas, Alupas, Vijayanagar Empire, Keladi Nayaks and the Portuguese. The city was a source of contention between the British and the Mysore rulers, Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan. Eventually annexed by the British in 1799, Mangalore remained part of the Madras Presidency until India's independence in 1947. The city was unified with the state of Mysore (now called Karnataka) in 1956.

Mangalore is the largest city and administrative headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada district, and is one of the most multicultural non-metro cities of India. It is also the largest city in the Coastal and Malnad regions of Karnataka, besides being a commercial, industrial, educational and healthcare hub on the West Coast of India. This port city has the second largest airport in Karnataka. Mangalore city urban agglomeration extends from Ullal in the south to Mulki in the north, covering a distance of over 40 km (25 mi). The city's landscape is characterised by rolling hills, coconut palms, freshwater streams and hard red-clay tiled-roof buildings. The city has an average elevation of 22 m (72 ft) above mean sea level. Mangalore has a tropical monsoon climate, and is under the influence of the Southwest monsoon.

Etymology[edit]

Mangalore was named after the deity Mangaladevi, the presiding deity of the Mangaladevi temple[7] or a synonym of Tara Bhagvati of the VajrayanaBuddhist sect.[8] According to local legend, a princess from Malabar named Parimala or Premaladevi renounced her kingdom and became a disciple of Matsyendranath, the founder of the Nath tradition. Having converted Premaladevi to the Nath sect, Matsyendranath renamed her Mangaladevi. She arrived in the area with Matsyendranath, but had to settle near Bolar in Mangalore as she fell ill on the way. Eventually she died, and the Mangaladevi temple was consecrated in her honour at Bolar by the local people after her death.[9] The city got its name from the temple.[10]

One of the earliest references to the city's name was made in 715 CE by the Pandyan King Chettian, who called the city Mangalapuram. The city and the coastal region was a part of the Pandyan Kingdom.[11] According to K.V. Ramesh, President of the Place Names Society of India, Mangaluru was first heard in 1345 CE during the Vijayanagar rule. Many shilashasanas (stones) of Vijayanagar period refer the city as Mangalapura. Even before that, during the Alupa dynasty period, it was referred to as Mangalapura (Mangala means 'auspicious'). The city is well known as Mangaluru in Kannada, a reference to Mangaladevi (the suffix uru means town or city). During the British occupation from 1799, Mangalore (anglicised from Mangaluru), stuck as the official appellation.[12] However, according to historian George M. Moraes, the word "Mangalore" is the Portuguese corruption of Mangaluru.[13]:2 The name of this town also appears in maps as early as the 1652 Sanson Map of India.[14]

Mangalore's diverse communities have different names for the city in their languages. In Tulu, the primary spoken language, the city is called Kudla, meaning "junction", since the city is situated at the confluence of the Netravati and Gurupura rivers.[15] In Konkani, Mangalore is referred to as Kodiyal, while in Malayalam, Mangalore is called Mangalapuram and the Beary name for the city is Maikala.[16]

History[edit]

Main article: History of Mangalore

Early and medieval history[edit]

Mangalore's historical importance is highlighted by the many references to the city by foreign travellers. During the first century CE, Pliny the Elder, a Roman historian, made references to a place called Nitrias, as a very undesirable place for disembarkation, on account of the pirates which frequent its vicinity,[17] while Greek historian Ptolemy in the second century CE referred to a place called Nitra. Ptolemy's and Pliny the Elder's references were probably made to the Netravati River, which flows through Mangalore.[18]Cosmas Indicopleustes, a Greek monk, in his 6th century work Christian Topography mentions Malabar as the chief seat of the pepper trade, and Mangarouth (port of Mangalore) as one of the five pepper marts which exported pepper.[19][20]

Mangalore is the heart of a distinct multilinguistic—cultural region: South Canara, the homeland of the Tulu-speaking people.[23] In the third century BCE, the town formed part of the Maurya Empire, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka of Magadha.[24]:176 From the third century CE to sixth century CE, the Kadamba dynasty, whose capital was based in Banavasi in North Canara, ruled over the entire Canara region as independent rulers.[25] From the middle of the seventh century to the end of the 14th century, the South Canara region was ruled by its own native Alupa rulers. The Alupas ruled over the region as feudatories of major regional dynasties like the Chalukyas of Badami, Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, Chalukyas of Kalyani, and Hoysalas of Dwarasamudra.[26]:17 During the reign of the Alupa king Kavi Alupendra (1110–1160), the city was visited by the Tunisian Jewish merchant Abraham Ben Yiju, who travelled between the Middle East and India during the 12th century.[27] The Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta, who had visited the town in 1342, referred to it as Manjarur, and stated that the town was situated on a large estuary, called the "estuary of the wolf", and was the greatest estuary in the country of Malabar.[28][29]:30 By 1345, the Vijayanagara rulers brought the region under their control.[26]:17 During the Vijayanagara period (1345–1550), South Canara was divided into Mangalore and Barkur rajyas (provinces), and two governors were appointed to look after each of them from Mangalore and Barkur. But many times only one governor ruled over both Mangalore and Barkur rajyas, and when the authority passed into the hands of Keladi rulers (1550–1763), they had a governor at Barkur alone.[26]:19 In 1448, Abdur Razzaq, the Persian ambassador of Sultan Shah Rukh of Samarkand, visited Mangalore, en route to the Vijayanagara court.[29]:31 The Italian traveller, Ludovico di Varthema, who visited India in 1506 says that he witnessed nearly sixty ships laden with rice ready for sail in the port of Mangalore.[26]:20

Foundation and early modern history[edit]

European influence in Mangalore can be traced back to 1498, when the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama landed at St Mary's Islands near Mangalore.[30] In the 16th century, the Portuguese came to acquire substantial commercial interests in Canara. Krishnadevaraya (1509–1529), the then ruler of the Vijaynagara empire maintained friendly relations with the Portuguese. The Portuguese trade was gradually gathering momentum and they were striving to destroy the Arab and Moplah trade along the coast. In 1524, when Vasco da Gama heard that the Muslim merchants of Calicut had agents at Mangalore and Basrur, he ordered the rivers to be blockaded. In 1526, the Portuguese under the viceroyship of Lopo Vaz de Sampaio took possession of Mangalore. The coastal trade passed out of Muslim hands into Portuguese hands.[26]:20 In 1550, the Vijayanagara ruler, Sadashiva Raya, entrusted the work of administering the coastal region of Canara to Sadashiv Nayaka of Keladi. By 1554, he was able to establish political authority over South Canara. The disintegration of the Vijaynagara Empire in 1565 gave the rulers of Keladi greater power in dealing with the coastal Canara region.[26]:27 They continued the Vijayanagara administrative system. The two provinces of Mangalore and Barkur continued to exist. The governor of Mangalore also acted as the governor of the Keladi army in his province.[26]:30 In 1695, the town was torched by Arabs in retaliation to Portuguese restrictions on Arab trade.[31]

Hyder Ali, the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore, conquered Mangalore in 1763,[32] consequently bringing the city under his administration until 1767. Mangalore was ruled by the British East India Company from 1767 to 1783,[33] but was subsequently wrested from their control in 1783 by Hyder Ali's son, Tipu Sultan; who renamed it Jalalabad.[34][35] The Second Anglo–Mysore War ended with the Treaty of Mangalore, signed between Tipu Sultan and the British East India Company on 11 March 1784.[36] After the defeat of Tipu at the Fourth Anglo–Mysore War, the city remained in control of the British, headquartering the South Canara district under the Madras Presidency.[12][37][38]

According to the Scottish physician Francis Buchanan who visited Mangalore in 1801, Mangalore was a rich and prosperous port with flourishing trading activity.[40] Rice was the grand article of export, and was exported to Muscat, Bombay, Goa and Malabar. Supari or Betel-nut was exported to Bombay, Surat and Kutch. Pepper and Sandalwood were exported to Bombay. Turmeric was exported to Muscat, Kutch, Surat and Bombay, along with Cassia Cinnamon, Sugar, Iron, Saltpeter, Ginger, Coir and Timber.[40]

The British colonial government did not support industrialisation in the region, and local capital remained invested mostly in land and money lending, which led to the later development of banking in the region. With the arrival of European missionaries in the early 19th century, the region saw the development of educational institutions and a modern industrial base, modelled on European industries.[41] The opening of the Lutheran Swiss Basel Mission in 1834 was central to the industrialisation process.[42] Printing press, cloth-weaving mills and factories manufacturing Mangalore tiles were set up by the missionaries.[23] When Canara (part of the Madras Presidency until this time) was bifurcated into North Canara and South Canara in 1859, Mangalore was transferred into South Canara and became its headquarters.[43]:5 South Canara remained under Madras Presidency, while North Canara was detached from Madras Presidency and transferred to Bombay Presidency in 1862.[43]:6

Later modern and contemporary history[edit]

The enactment of the Madras Town Improvement Act (1865) mandated the establishment of the Municipal council on 23 May 1866, which was responsible for urban planning and providing civic amenities.[13]:178 The ItalianJesuits, who arrived in Mangalore in 1878, played an important role in education, economy, health, and social welfare of the city.[44] The linking of Mangalore in 1907 to the Southern Railway, and the subsequent proliferation of motor vehicles in India, further increased trade and communication between the city and the rest of the country.[45] By the early 20th century, Mangalore had become a major supplier of educated manpower to Bombay, Bangalore, and the Middle East.[23]

As a result of the States Reorganisation Act (1956), Mangalore (part of the Madras Presidency until this time) was incorporated into the dominion of the newly created Mysore State (now called Karnataka).[46][47]:415 Mangalore is the fourth largest city of Karnataka in terms of population, and eighth largest port of India, providing Karnataka with access to the Arabian Sea coastline.[23] Mangalore experienced significant growth in the decades 1970–80, with the opening of New Mangalore Port in 1974 and commissioning of Mangalore Chemicals & Fertilizers Limited in 1976.[48][49]

Geography and climate[edit]

Mangalore is located at 12°52′N74°53′E / 12.87°N 74.88°E / 12.87; 74.88 in the Dakshina Kannada district of Karnataka.[50] It has an average elevation of 22 m (72 ft) above mean sea level.[51] It is the administrative headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada district, the largest urban coastal centre of Karnataka.[52] Mangalore is situated on the west coast of India, and is bounded by the Arabian Sea to its west and the Western Ghats to its east.[50] Mangalore city, as a municipal entity, spans an area of 132.45 km2 (51.14 sq mi).[2] Mangalore experiences moderate to gusty winds during day time and gentle winds at night.[53] The topography of the city is plain up to 30 km (18.64 mi) inside the coast, and changes to undulating hilly terrain sharply towards the east in Western Ghats.[54] The geology of the city is characterised by hard laterite in hilly tracts and sandy soil along the seashore.[52] The Geological Survey of India has identified Mangalore as a moderately earthquake-prone urban centre and categorised the city in the Seismic III Zone.[55]

The Netravati and Gurupura rivers rivers encircle the city, with the Gurupura flowing around the north and the Netravati flowing around the south of the city.[56]The rivers form an estuary at the south-western region of the city and subsequently flow into the Arabian sea.[57] Coconut trees, palm trees, and Ashoka trees comprise the primary vegetation of the city.[56]

Under the Köppen climate classification, Mangalore has a tropical monsoon climate and is under the direct influence of the Arabian Sea branch of the southwest monsoon.[58] It receives about 95 per cent of its total annual rainfall within a period of about six months from May to October, while remaining extremely dry from December to March.[58] The average annual precipitation in Mangalore is 3,796.9 millimetres (149 in).[59][60]Humidity is approximately 75 per cent on average, and peaks during May, June and July.[61] The maximum average humidity is 93 per cent in July and average minimum humidity is 56 per cent in January.[61]

The driest and least humid months are from December to February.[62] During this period, temperatures during the day stay below 34 °C (93 °F) and drop to about 19 °C (66 °F) at night.[63] The lowest recorded temperature at Panambur is 15.6 °C (60 °F) on January 8, 1992, and at Bajpe it is 15.9 °C (61 °F) on November 19, 1974.[64] In Mangalore, the temperature has never touched 40 °C (104 °F), according to the India Meteorological Department (IMD).[65] The highest ever recorded temperature in Mangalore is 38.1 °C (101 °F) on March 13, 1985.[66][64] The summer gives way to the monsoon season, when the city experiences the highest precipitation among all urban centres in India, due to the influence of the Western Ghats.[67] The rains subside in September, with the occasional rainfall in October.[68]

The highest rainfall recorded in a 24-hour period is 330.8 millimetres (13 in) on 22 June 2003.[64] In the year 1994, Mangalore received very heavy annual rainfall of 5,018.52 millimetres (198 in).[69]

Climate data for Mangalore, India
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)36.3
(97.3)
37.8
(100)
38.1
(100.6)
36.6
(97.9)
36.7
(98.1)
34.4
(93.9)
35.5
(95.9)
32.2
(90)
34.6
(94.3)
35.0
(95)
35.6
(96.1)
35.6
(96.1)
38.1
(100.6)
Average high °C (°F)32.8
(91)
33.0
(91.4)
33.5
(92.3)
34.0
(93.2)
33.3
(91.9)
29.7
(85.5)
28.2
(82.8)
28.4
(83.1)
29.5
(85.1)
30.9
(87.6)
32.3
(90.1)
32.8
(91)
31.5
(88.7)
Average low °C (°F)20.8
(69.4)
21.8
(71.2)
23.6
(74.5)
25.0
(77)
25.1
(77.2)
23.4
(74.1)
22.9
(73.2)
23.0
(73.4)
23.1
(73.6)
23.1
(73.6)
22.4
(72.3)
21.2
(70.2)
22.9
(73.2)
Record low °C (°F)16.1
(61)
17.3
(63.1)
18.8
(65.8)
19.7
(67.5)
20.4
(68.7)
20.5
(68.9)
19.8
(67.6)
19.4
(66.9)
20.2
(68.4)
19.1
(66.4)
15.9
(60.6)
16.1
(61)
15.9
(60.6)
Average rainfall mm (inches)1.1
(0.043)
0.2
(0.008)
2.9
(0.114)
24.4
(0.961)
183.2
(7.213)
1,027.2
(40.441)
1,200.4
(47.26)
787.3
(30.996)
292.1
(11.5)
190.8
(7.512)
70.9
(2.791)
16.4
(0.646)
3,796.9
(149.484)
Average rainy days0.200.31.6723.527.424.913.79.13.60.6111.9
Average relative humidity (%)62666871718789888579736575.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours313296299292276119941331782262712922,789
Source #1: India Meteorological Department – Monthly mean maximum & minimum temperature and total rainfall[70]
Source #2: Weather-And-Climate (Humidity and Sunshine hours)[71][72]

Economy[edit]

Main article: Economy of Mangalore

Mangalore's economy comprises industrial, commercial, agricultural processing and port-related activities.[73] The New Mangalore Port is India's eighth largest port, in terms of cargo handling.[74] It handles 75 per cent of India's coffee exports and the bulk of its cashew nuts.[75] During 2000–01, Mangalore generated a revenue of ₹33.47 crore (US$5.13 million) to the state.[76] Imports through Mangalore harbour include crude oil, edible oil, LPG, and timber.[77] The city along with Tuticorin is also one of two points for import of wood to South India.[78]

The city's major petrochemical industries include BASF, Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Ltd. (MRPL), Mangalore Chemicals and Fertilizers Ltd. (MCF), Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Ltd. (KIOCL), Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (HPCL), Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (BPCL), JBF Petrochemicals[79] and Total Oil India Limited.[80] The Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) plans to invest over ₹35,000 crore (US$5.36 billion) in a new 15 million-tonne refinery, petrochemical plant and power, as well as LNG plants at the Mangalore Special Economic Zone.[81] Indian Strategic Petroleum Reserves Ltd, a special purpose vehicle under the Oil Industry Development Board, has developed strategic crude oil reserves in Mangalore and two other places in India.[82][83] Out of the 5 million metric tonnes (MMT) storage, 1.5 MMT is stored at Mangalore.[84] India has built 5.33 million tons of strategic crude oil storages at Mangalore, Padur (near Udupi) in Karnataka and at Visakhapatnam to ensure energy security.[85][86][87]Bharati Shipyard Ltd (BSL) (now known as Bharati Defence and Infrastructure Limited) has established its ship building site near Tannirbavi in Mangalore.[88]

Major information technology (IT) and outsourcing companies like Infosys,[89][90]Cognizant Technology Solutions[91][92] and Endurance International Group[93][94] have their branches at Mangalore.[75]Mphasis BPO has one of its branches at Mangalore.[95] Two I.T. parks, namely, (Export Promotion Industrial park (EPIP) at Ganjimutt and Special Economic Zone (SEZ) near Mangalore University) have been constructed.[96] There is an IT Tech Park by the name Soorya Infratech park situated in Mudipu.[97]Corporation Bank,[98]Canara Bank[99] and Vijaya Bank[100] were the three nationalised banks established in Mangalore during the first half of the 20th century. Mangalore is the headquarters of Corporation Bank and Karnataka Bank.[101] The Mangalore Catholic Co-operative Bank (MCC Bank) Ltd,[102] Mangalore Cooperative Town Bank Ltd[103] and SCDCC Bank[104] were the scheduled banks established in Mangalore.

The leaf spring industry has its presence in Mangalore, with Canara Workshops Ltd. and Lamina Suspension Products Ltd. in the city.[73] The Old Mangalore Port is a fishing port located at Bunder in Mangalore, where a large number of mechanised boats anchor.[105] The traffic at this port was 122,000 tonnes during the years 2003–04.[106] Fishing is a traditional occupation, and the products are exported to the surrounding regions.[107] Mangalorean firms have a major presence in the tile, beedi, coffee, and cashew nut industry, although the tile industry has declined due to concrete being preferred in modern construction.[75][73] The Albuquerque tile factory in Mangalore is one of India's oldest red roof tile manufacturing factories.[108][109] The Ullal suburb of Mangalore produces hosiery and coiryarns, while beedi rolling is an important source of revenue to many in the city.[73]

Demographics[edit]

Mangalore is known as Kudla in Tulu, Kodial in Konkani, Maikāla in Beary and Mangaluru in Kannada.[110] The city has a population of 623,841 as per the 2011 census of India.[111][112] Male literacy rate was 96.49%, while the female literacy rate was 91.63%.[1] About 8.5% population was under six years of age.[1] The Human Development Index (HDI) of Mangalore city is 0.83.[5] The death rate and infant mortality rate were at 3.7% and 1.2% respectively.[113] According to the 2011 census, 7726 people reside in slums in Mangalore city, which is 1.55% of the total population.[114][115]

The four main languages in Mangalore are Tulu, Konkani, Beary and Kannada[116]English is also widely spoken in the city,[117][118].

Hinduism is the largest religion in Mangalore, with Devadiga, Mogaveera, Billavas, Ganigas, Bunts, Kota Brahmins, Shivalli Brahmins, Havyaka Brahmins, Sthanika Brahmins, Goud Saraswat Brahmins (GSBs), and Chitpavan Brahmins, Daivadnyas are the major communities in Hindus.[119] Christians form a sizeable section of Mangalorean society, with Mangalorean Catholics accounting for the largest Christian community.[120]Protestants in Mangalore typically speak Kannada.[121]Anglo-Indians were also part of the Mangalorean Christian Community.[122]

Mangalore has one of the highest percentage of Muslims as compared to other cities in Karnataka.[123] Most Muslims in Mangalore are Bearys, who speak the Beary language.[124] Majority of them follow the Shafi'i school of Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence).[125] Mangalore also has a small group of Urdu-speaking Dakhini Muslims.[126]

There is also a small community of Tuluva Jains and Gujaratis.[23]

Culture[edit]

Main article: Culture of Mangalore

Many classical dance forms and folk art are practised in the city. The Yakshagana, a night-long dance and drama performance, is held in Mangalore,[127] while Pilivesha (literally, tiger dance), a folk dance unique to the city, is performed during Dasara and Krishna Janmashtami.[128]Karadi Vesha (literally, bear dance) is another well known dance performed during Dasara.[129]Paddanas (Ballad-like epics passed on through generations by word of mouth) are sung by a community of impersonators in Tulu and are usually accompanied by the rhythmic drum beats.[129] The Bearys' unique traditions are reflected in such folk songs as kolkai (sung during kolata, a valour folk-dance during which sticks used as props), unjal pat (traditional lullaby), moilanji pat, and oppune pat (sung at weddings).[130] The Evkaristik Purshanv (Konkani: Eucharistic procession) is an annual Catholic religious procession led on the first Sunday of each year.[129] The Shreemanti Bai Memorial Government Museum in

Mangalore is named after the Hindu goddess Mangaladevi.
A pen and ink drawing of Mangalore Fort made in 1783, after it had been taken over by the British East India Company
A schematic map showing the tourist places in Mangalore city.

Religions in Mangalore city

source:Mangalore City Census 2011 data

  Hindus (68.99%)

  Muslims (17.40%)

  Christians (13.15%)

  Jains (0.21%)

  Not Stated (0.12%)

  Sikh (0.08%)

  Buddhist (0.05%)

  Other (0.00%)

Prayer Hall of Jumma Mazjid, Zeenath Baksh, Bunder, Mangalore
Yakshagana is one of the popular dance forms in Mangalore
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