Ecosystem is the environment where biotic/ living things live and interact with nonliving things/abiotic factors such as coral reef, forest, grassland, farm etc. In 1935, the word “ecosystem” was invented by a British ecologist Sir Arthur George Tansley, who depicted natural system in “constant interchange” among their biotic and abiotic parts.
- Biotic parts such as plants, animals and bacteria etc.
- Abiotic parts such as the soil, air, water etc.
Ecology is a branch of science that was developed by scientist to make the study easier about the relationship between biotic things and their physical environment which is the abiotic factors – and ecosystem is part of the concept of ecology in an organized view of nature.
Biosphere is the earth’s zone of air, water and soil that has the capability in supporting life. This zone reaches about 10 km into the atmosphere and down to the lowest ocean floor. In simpler term, the biosphere is the surface of the hierarchy on earth where living environment and organism thrive. It contains various categories of biotic communities known as biomes that is described by their overbearing vegetation such as deserts, tropical rainforest and grasslands. The biomes are in turn composed of various ecosystems.
Ecosystem has processes which sustain ecological balance:
- The cyclic flow of materials from abiotic environment to the biosphere and then back to the abiotic environment.
- Upholding the equilibrium of interaction inside food webs.
These processes must be maintained in the ecosystem; any interference with these cycles disrupts and affects ecological balance. Below are some of the reasons and causes of ecological imbalance in the living world.
Essay on the Impact of Human Activities on Environment!
In order to meet the basic needs of increases population, the present society has under taken a series of steps like rapid industrialization, unplanned urbanisation, deforestation, overexploitation of natural sources, etc.
The outcomes of the above human activities have contributed significantly to the degradation of environment around us.
Some important impacts of human activities on environment are outlined below:
In order to provide timber and farm land to increased population, large number of forest trees are cut and forest area is converting to farm lands. The rate of deforestation is so faster that around 1.5 million hectare of forest cover is lost every year is India alone. The process of deforestation results in decreasing rainfall, increasing global temperature, loss of top soil, modification of climatic conditions etc.
Although the industrial activities of man provide basic need of the society, simultaneously the same release a lot of pollutants to the environment. The pollutants in environment cause loss of raw materials, health hazards, increase in death rate, damage to crop, making environment unfit for living organisms etc.
3. Loss of ecological balance:
The excessive use, misuse and mis-management of biosphere resources results in disturbance in ecosystem or ecological imbalance.
4. Air pollution:
The anthropogenic release of various air pollutants to the environment causes a number of dreaded phenomena like green house effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rain and smog formation etc.
5. Water pollution:
Human activities in respect of disposal of sewage wastes, solid wastes, municipal wastes, agricultural and industrial wastes cause the environment unfit for day to day use. Besides, polluted water spreads or leads to different diseases.
6. Increased consumption of natural resources:
Since the starting of industrial era, the natural resources are constantly utilised for the production of one or more products for the day to day use of society.
7. Production of waste:
Rapid industrialization and unplanned urbanization release a lot of toxic waste material either in solid or liquid or gaseous state which induces a number of serious environmental hazards.
8. Extinction of Wildlife:
Since forests are natural habitats of wild life (both plants and animals) deforestation leads to the extinction of valuable wild life and loss of biodiversity.
9. Habitual destruction:
The commercial and industrial activities associated with mining, construction of dams, fishing, agriculture etc. cause habitat destruction which is a pathway to pollution.
10. Noise pollution:
The man-made noise due to mechanized automobile, industries, trains, aero planes, social functions etc. causes noise pollution which has impact on both biotic and a biotic components of environment.
11. Radiation pollution:
The radiations from radioactive substances used in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons can have significant impact on genetic materials of body (DMA, RHA etc.)
12. Soil erosion:
The anthropogenic processes like deforestation and overgrazing induce soil erosion which causes soil moisture reduction, lowering of productivity, decline in soil fertility etc.